Presentation on theme: "Argument & Persuasion Think of your favorite commercial. What do you like about it? What makes it your favorite? Does it make you want to buy that product?"— Presentation transcript:
Argument & Persuasion Think of your favorite commercial. What do you like about it? What makes it your favorite? Does it make you want to buy that product?
Rhetoric = The Art of Persuasion The history of rhetoric and the concepts of ethos, pathos, and logos began in Greece.
Aristotle was a famous Greek philosopher. Literally translated from Greek, the word “philosopher” means one who loves wisdom. phil soph er philosopher love wisdom one who philosopher
Who was Aristotle? Aristotle was a famous Greek philosopher who studied the art of persuasion. Aristotle taught Alexander the Great how to properly argue and perform a public speech. Plato, another famous Greek philosopher, was his teacher.
Ethos, Pathos, and Logos Aristotle Plato In approximately 300 B.C.E. Aristotle, who was a famous Greek philosopher, wrote a book entitled, “The Art of Rhetoric.” In his book, Aristotle identified the three methods of persuasion. He called them ethos, pathos, and logos. The Book
Ethos, Pathos, & Logos There are several ways to appeal to an audience. Among them are appealing to ethos, pathos, and logos. These appeals are prevalent in almost all arguments. 1.Ethos = an ethical or moral argument 2.Pathos = an emotional argument 3. Logos = a logical argument
Ethos Greek word ETHIKOS meaning moral or showing moral character Speaker must establish moral credibility in the minds of audience, must show he/she has expertise in the subject matter For example, when a trusted doctor gives you advice, you may not understand all of the medical reasoning behind the advice, but you follow the directions because you believe that the doctor knows what he/she is talking about.
Ethos = Ethics: refers to the trustworthiness of the speaker/writer. Ethos is an effective persuasive strategy because when we believe that the speaker does not intend to do us harm, we are more willing to listen to what s/he has to say. When a judge comments on legal precedent audiences tend to listen because it is the job of a judge to know the nature of past legal cases. Ethos - cont’d
Pathos Pathos: related to the words pathetic, sympathy, and empathy. Accept a claim based on how it makes you feel without fully analyzing the rationale behind the claim May persuade you with fear, love, patriotism, guilt, hate or joy. The use of pathos can be manipulative Appeals to pathos touch a nerve and compel people to not only listen, but to also take the next step and act in the world.
Pathos – cont’d Pathos is the use of emotional appeal. Both words and pictures can achieve this appeal.
Logos Logos = logical appeal Refers to any attempt to appeal to the intellect. Appeals to the left side of the brain. People find certain patterns, conventions and modes of reasoning to be convincing and persuasive. Relies on reasoning and facts. Numbers, polls and statistics are also examples of the persuasive use of logic.
Logos The Mac vs. PC ads use logos because they give specific reasons that people should own a Mac instead of a PC. The type of logos that these ads use is deductive reasoning. The deductive reasoning use is: I am familiar with and like using a PC. A Mac can operate the same programs as a PC. I am familiar with and like using a Mac. Some added bonuses are the fact that a Mac is more resistant to viruses and it has more program capabilities (such as graphics programs) than a PC. These ads are very logical in the way they approach their explanations of why a Mac is better than a PC.
REVIEW Ethos, Pathos, & Logos 1.Ethos = an ethical or moral argument 2.Pathos = an emotional argument 3. Logos = a logical argument
Practice Using a magazine, go through the advertisements and find one that represents each rhetorical strategy STAPLE your three ads together and LABEL each of them Put your ads (with your NAME on them) in the bin, and the used magazines on my desk
Other Persuasive Terms Ad hominem: means “to the man.” Does not argue the issue, it argues the person Red Herring: A deliberate attempt to divert attention Straw Man: Creates the illusion of having refuted a proposition by substituting a similar, but weaker, proposition Begging the Question: Assumes a conclusion is true without proving it. Also called a circular argument.
Examples Ad hominem: “Green Peace’s strategies aren’t effective because they’re all hippies.” Red Herring: “I know your car isn’t working right, but if you had gone to the store the day before, you wouldn’t be having problems.”
Other Examples Straw Man: “The government doesn’t take care of the poor because it doesn’t have a tax to support the poor.” Begging the Question: “Tobacco has been shown to be as addictive as heroin and thus should be treated as a dangerous drug.”