2 The Basics of Body Composition There is no single ideal body weight, size, shape, or body type for everyone.
3 Your Body Type Ectomorph Body type characterized by a low percentage of body fat, small bone size, and a small amount of muscle mass and size. Term to Know A person with the ectomorph body type has a lean appearance, often with long, slender arms and legs.
4 Your Body Type A person with the mesomorph body type appears muscular and well-proportioned. Mesomorph Body type characterized by a low-to-medium percentage of body fat, medium-to-large bone size, and a large amount of muscle mass and size. Term to Know
5 Your Body Type Endomorph Body type characterized by a high percentage of body fat, large bone size, and a small amount of muscle mass and size. Term to Know The endomorph body type is characterized by a round face, short neck, and wide hips.
6 Your Body Weight There is no one ideal weight, but there are healthy ranges for each individual. When you compare two people of the same size, one may weigh more because they have more lean body weight. Lean body weight The combined weight of bone, muscle, and connective tissue. Term to Know
7 Your Body Weight One way to determine if your weight is within a healthy range is by using Body Mass Index (BMI). Body Mass Index (BMI) A way to assess body size in relation to your height and weight. Term to Know
8 Body Composition Physical activity and nutrition affect body composition. Body composition The relative percentage in your body of fat to lean body tissue, including water, bone, and muscle. Term to Know
9 Body Composition Being overweight is sometimes, but not always, the result of excess body fat. Overweight A condition in which a person is heavier than the standard weight range for his or her height. Term to Know Being overweight may lead to obesity. Being overweight can present a high risk to your health. Being overweight is sometimes, but not always, the result of excess body fat.
10 Body Composition Essential fat is necessary for these reasons: Essential fat The minimum amount of body fat necessary for good health. Term to Know It insulates your body. It cushions you internal organs. It provides you with a source of stored energy that enables you to meet your body’s fuel needs.
11 Body Composition and Functional Health If you carry too little body fat you have excessive leanness. Excessive leanness Having a percentage of body fat that is below the acceptable range for your age and gender. Term to Know
12 Body Composition and Functional Health If you carry too much body fat you are overfat. Overfat Carrying too much body fat for your age and gender. Term to Know
13 Influences on Body Fat Heredity is not the only factor that plays a role in body size and shape. Although you cannot control the number of fat cells in your body, you can control their size.
14 Lifestyle Behaviors Body composition is affected by eating patterns and activity level. By eating healthfully and maintaining an active lifestyle, you can help control your body composition now and as you get older.
15 The Energy Equation To manage your weight and stay healthy, your body needs to maintain an energy balance. Calorie intake The total number of calories you take in from food. Calorie expenditure The total number of calories you burn or expend. Terms to Know Energy balance is determined by calorie intake and calorie expenditure.
16 The Energy Equation Metabolism is an ongoing process that occurs even when you are at rest. Metabolism The process by which the body converts calories from food to energy. Term to Know
17 The Energy Equation The rate at which your body uses energy varies from person to person and during different physical activities. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) The amount of calories you expend for body processes while at rest. Term to Know Your calorie expenditure is determined by your resting metabolic rate (RMR), and how physically active you are each day.
18 The Energy Equation Gender Age Heredity Eating Habits Factors That Shape Your RMR Calorie Intake Physical Activity and Exercise
19 Weight Control and Physical Activity The number of calories you burn through physical activity will vary because of several factors. The number, size, and weight of body parts that you work The intensity of your workout The duration of your activities