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Personal Fitness: Chapter 5

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1 Personal Fitness: Chapter 5
Your Body Composition Personal Fitness: Chapter 5

2 The Basics of Body Composition
Ectomorph- a low percentage of body fat, small bone size, and a small amount of muscle mass and size Endomorph- high percentage of body fat, large bone size, a small amount of muscle mass and size Mesomorph- low to medium body fat percentage, medium to large bone size, and large amount of muscle mass and size.

3 The Basics of Body Composition
Body weight: Generally a controllable factor, unlike body type People put too much emphasis on body weight Body Mass Index- a way to assess body size in relation to height and weight Does not account for muscle mass See chart on page 149 Body Composition- the relative percentage in your body of fat mass to lean body tissue, including water, bone and muscle

4 Body Fat Overweight- a condition in which a person is heavier than the standard weight range for their height and gender. Can a person be overweight and healthy? Over fat- a condition in which a person has a higher than recommended percentage of body fat for their age and gender Teen Males: 7 to 19 percent Teen Females: 12 to 24 percent Obesity- a ratio of body fat to lean mass that is excessively high. Is obesity a disease?

5 Body Fat Essential Fat- the minimum amount of body fat necessary for good health Insulates body against the cold Cushions internal organs, protecting them from injury Provides valuable source of energy Transports fat soluble vitamins Excessive leanness- having a percent body fat that is below the acceptable range for your age and gender

6 Influences on Body Fat Lifestyle
Activity level Dietary habits How many steps does the average person take in a day? Men: average 7192 steps per day. Women: average 5210 step per day. How many steps does it take to burn one calorie? Approximately 20 steps burn off one calorie (depending on your weight). (70,000 steps to burn off one pound, 4,667 flights) (40,00 steps if you take in 2,000 calories per day, 2,667 flights)

7 Energy Balance Equation
Calories intake - Calorie expenditure= EBE Calorie intake- the total calories taken in from food and beverage Calorie expenditure- the total calories burned Metabolism- the process by which the body converts calories from food to energy Resting Metabolic Rate- the amount of calories expended for processes while the body is at rest Obesity Video

8 Weight Control and Physical Activity
The more physically active you are, the more calories you will burn. The number, size, and weight of body parts worked If you work your legs, you will burn more calories than if you work your arms. The reason: Leg muscles are larger than arm muscles. The larger the muscle mass, the more energy needed to work. Workout intensity The more physically demanding the workout, the more calories burned. Duration, or time, of activity The longer the workout the more calories burned (assuming the intensity is the same.)

9 Evaluating Body Composition
Body Circumference: Body fat typically gathers around the waist in males and around the hips in females. Girth- The distance around a body part Body-Circumference Test Males (pg. 160) Step 1: Weight in pounds Step 2: girth at the waistline Body-Circumference Test Females (pg. 160) Step 1: height Step 2: girth at the widest point on the hips

10 Skinfold Measures Skinfolds is another way to measure body fat percentage Calipers-a tweeze like device used to pinch a fold of skin surrounding adipose tissue.

11 Healthful Strategies to Mange Weight
Evaluate your needs: ask a healthcare professional about a target body composition and goals to achieve it. Be realistic: Weight Loss: no more than 1-2 pounds per week. Weight Gain: no more than ½ pound a week Design a personal plan: include healthful eating habits and physical activity Become physically active: 60 minutes per day, or a minimum of 225 minutes per week Track your progress: Monitor weight loss, and change in body composition (along with other vital numbers such as BP and cholesterol)

12 Weight control, Diet, and Exercise
To lose a pound of fat, reduce calorie intake by 3,500 calories, expend 3,500 more calories in physical activity, or a combination. Weight Loss: Eat in regular intervals Get at least 1,700-1,800 calories daily Nutrient dense foods- high in nutrients as compared to calorie content

13 Weight control, Diet, and Exercise
Weight Gain: Consume more calories and maintain a high level of physical activity Eat more than the minimum number of servings from each section of the Food Guide Pyramid Weight training Weight maintenance: Energy balance equation Include a healthy eating plan Regular physical Activity

14 Benefits of Achieving your Goal
Be persistent and patient. Maintaining a healthy weight and body composition through proper nutrition and exercise has several benefits Increase energy level Increase self-esteem Reduce Stress level Reduce risk for disease

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