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Chapter 10 Communication

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1 Chapter 10 Communication

2 Functions of Communication
Control Motivate Express emotions Exchange information

3 The Communication Model
Communication is the exchange of information between people. It occurs when one person understands and responds to a message that has been sent by someone else. The communication process consists of the following: The sender creates a message by encoding or putting it in a certain format to send to the receiver. A variety of media or communication methods can be used. Before it reaches its intended receiver, the message can be distorted by noise--all the factors that interfere with and distort communication. The receiver decodes the message by translating it into an understandable form. Then, the receiver provides feedback to indicate that the message was received and understood. Feedback can close the communication loop and complete the process, or it can start further communication. The basic communication process seems simple. However, at any time, effective communication can be prevented by distortions or obstacles. 3

4 What constitutes “noise”?
culture/style differences, e.g.: nonverbals, gender norms, ritual patterns, etc. poor encoding and decoding KSAs language proficiencies KSAs, e.g.: accents, dialects, foreign speakers emotional states of conversants perceptual filters/differences jargon and technical vocabulary differences status differences between conversants information overload the relationship itself other??

5 Interpersonal Communication
Oral Written Non-verbal

6 Oral Communication Advantages: Disadvantages: Speed Feedback
Potential for distorted messages Content at target different from original

7 Written Communication
Advantages Disadvantages Tangible record Indefinite storage (e.g., available for reference) Generally demands well thought-out, logical and clear expression Time consuming Lack of immediate feedback Uncertain as to how expressions will be interpreted

8 Computer-Aided Communication
Instant messaging Intranet and Extranet links Video-conferencing

9 Non-verbal Communication
The two most important nonverbal messages we send: Extent of liking and interest Relative perceived status differences

10 Non-verbal Communication (cont.)
Categories of Non-verbal Messages: Intonations (paralinguistics) Facial and body movements/expressions (occulesics, kinesics) Physical distance (proxemics)

11 Cultural Context High-context cultures: Low-context cultures:
Rely heavily on subtle situational and other nonverbal cues. Examples include: Japan China Korea Vietnam Arab cultures Low-context cultures: Rely heavily on specific meaning and definitions of words. Examples include: Britain/U.K. North America Scandinavia Switzerland Germany

12 A Cross-Cultural Guide
Assume differences until similarity is proved Emphasize description in the messages (rather than interpretation or evaluation) Practice empathy If you must interpret something, treat your interpretation as a “working hypothesis”

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