Presentation on theme: "Cross-cultural Communication and Negotiation"— Presentation transcript:
1 Cross-cultural Communication and Negotiation Chapter 7
2 Chapter Outline The communication process Noise in communicationDirect vs. formal communicationNon-verbal communicationBody movement and gesturesSpaceEye contactTouching
3 Chapter Outline (2) Monochronic vs. polychronic time Practical issues in communicationUsing interpretersCommunication with non-native speakersAvoiding attribution errors
4 The Communication Process Communication is the process of transferring meaning from sender to receiver.MediumReceiverinterpretationSendermeaningEncodingDecodingFeedbackThe Communication Model
5 The Communication Process Encoding: The sender expresses a meaning in a messageMedium: the means that a sender uses to transmit the messageDecoding: the receiver gets the messageInterpretation: the receiver tries to understand the meaning of the messageFeedback: The receiver responds to the message
6 Noise in Communication Noise is a factor that causes the receiver to misunderstand the hearer's message."I wonder if you realize that what you think you heard is not what I meant to say"."Yes" does not always mean "yes".
7 Basic Communication Styles Direct communication: communication that comes to the point and lacks ambiguityFormal communication: communication that acknowledges rank, titles, and ceremony in prescribed social interaction
8 Exhibit 12.2: Cultural Differences in Communication Styles
9 Context of Communication (1) Context is the information that surrounds a communication and helps to convey the messageLow-context societies – U. S. and most northernEuropean countriesMessage is explicit and the speaker tries to say precisely what is meantDirect style: focus on speaker's statementsSilence may make people uncomfortableFacial expressions and body language may be easy to interpret, if you understand the gestures of the speaker's cultureBusiness meetings are often focused on objectives.
10 Context of Communication (2) High-context societies – most Arab and Asian countriesBusiness meetings with new contacts focus on relationships first. Business comes later.Indirect style: speaker does not spell out his messageAvoid saying "no"Avoid embarrassing people
11 Context of Communication (3) High-context societies (continued)Messages often are implicit: Listener is expected to de-code verbal and non-verbal cues, such as voice, intonation, timing, body languageSilence is used to understand received messages and decide how to replyIf the culture is neutral (Asia), control body language and facial expressions – if you do not, people will not trust you or respect you.
12 Exhibit 12.1: Country Differences in High-Context and Low-Context Communication
13 Nonverbal Communication Communication without wordsGestures and body languageSpaceTouchingEye contactNon-verbal behaviors differ in different culturesMajor source of "noise" or misunderstandings in cross-cultural communication.
14 Body Movement Communication through body movements E.g., facial expressions, body postureMost Asian cultures use bowing to show respectNo universal code for what body movements meanEasy to misinterpret gestures
15 Space Use of space to communicate Each culture has appropriate distances for communicationNorth Americans prefer more distance than Latin American and Arab culturesClosed offices vs. open offices
16 Space (2)DistanceIntimate distance is used for very confidential communicationsPersonal distance is used for talking with family and close friendsSocial distance is used to handle most business transactionsPublic distance is used when calling across the room or giving a talk to a group
17 Personal Space in the U.S. Intimate distance18”Personal distance18” to 4’Social distance4’ to 8’Public distance8’ to 10’
19 TouchingShaking hands, embracing, or kissing when greeting one another. Touching to emphasize a pointNo touching or low touchingE.g., Japan, U.S., England, and many Northern European countriesModerate touchingE.g., Australia, China, Ireland, and IndiaTouchingE.g., Latin American countries, Italy, and Greece
20 Eye Contact Communication through eye contact or gaze U.S. and Canada: people are very comfortable and expect eye contact to be maintainedChina and Japan: eye contact is considered very rude and disrespectful
21 Monochronic Time Things are done in a linear fashion. Manager addresses Issue A first and then moves on to Issue BTime schedules are very important. Time is viewed as something that can be controlled and should be used wiselyBe on time for appointments.Perform services or deliver goods when promised.Meetings have stated objectives and include only the people that need to be there.
22 Polychronic Time People tend to do several things at the same time People place higher value on personal involvement than on getting things done on timeSchedules are less important than personal relationshipsPeople should be understanding about delays.In Arab countries, several meetings may be going on in the same room at the same time.
23 Practical Issues in Cross-Cultural Business Communication Interpreter’s role: to provide a simultaneous translation of a foreign languageRequire greater linguistic skills than speaking a language or translating written documentsHave the technical knowledge and vocabulary to deal with technical details common in business transactionsHave to ensure the accuracy and common understanding of agreements
24 Successful Use of Interpreters Spend time with the interpreterGo over technical and other issues with interpreter for proper understandingInsist on frequent interruptions when it’s necessaryLook for feedback and comprehension by watching the eyes
25 Successful use of Interpreters (2) Discuss the message beforehandRequest that your interpreter apologize for your inability to speak in the local languageConfirm that all key components of the message have been properly comprehended
26 Communication with Non-native Speakers Use the most common words with most common meaningsSelect words with few alternative meaningsFollow rules of grammar strictlySpeak with clear breaks between wordsAvoid sports words or words borrowed from literature
27 Communication with Non-native Speakers (2) Avoid words or expressions that are picturesAvoid slangMimic the cultural flavor of the nonnative speaker’s languageTest your communication successRepeat basic ideas using different words when your counterpart does not understandConfirm important aspects in writing
28 Avoiding Attribution Errors Attribution: process by which we interpret the meaning of spoken words or nonverbal exchangesAttribute meaning based on our taken-for-granted cultural expectationsEasy to make mistakes of attributionNeed to observe carefullyAvoid subtleties of a foreign languageAvoid complex nonverbal behaviors