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Section 8: Animal Sciences

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1 Section 8: Animal Sciences
Unit 26: Animal Anatomy, Physiology and Nutrition

2 Key Terms See page 533—this will be your assignment on Tuesday!

3 Part I Nutrition in Human and Animal Health Anatomy and Physiology

4 Nutrition in Human and Animal Health
Proper health is connected to proper nutrition Scurvy, anorexia, obesity in humans ration: content of food eaten by an animal in 1 day Balanced ration: a ration that contains all of the needed nutrients in the proper proportions and amounts Deficiency diseases: diseases caused by an improper balance of vitamins and minerals

5 Animal Anatomy and Physiology
The internal function and vital processes of animals and their organs are referred to as animal physiology. The various parts of the body are collectively known as anatomy.

6 Skeletal System The skeletal system is made up of bones join together by cartilage and ligaments. Provides support for the body Provides protection for the brain and soft organs Bone is the main component of the skeletal system. It is composed of 26% minerals (mostly calcium) Bone marrow produces the body’s blood cells and is found inside the bone.

7 Muscular System The muscular system is the lean meat of the animal and the part of the body that is used for human consumption. Muscles provide movement in cooperation with the skeletal system and support life (ex: heart, diaphragm) Voluntary muscles can be controlled by animals Involuntary muscles operate in the body without control by the will of the animal Muscles are mostly composed of proteins which are nutrients made up of amino acids.

8 Circulatory System The circulatory system is composed of the heart, veins, arteries , capillaries and lymph system. This system transports food and oxygen to cells and filters waste from the body Lymph gland secret disease-fighting materials into the body. Vitamins, minerals, proteins and carbohydrates are essential for the function of the circulatory system.

9 Respiratory System The respiratory system provides oxygen to the blood of the animal and removes waste gases such as CO2 from the blood. Composed of the nostrils, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and lungs

10 Nervous System The nervous system is composed of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord. Responsible for coordinating the movements of animals and responds to all of the senses (hearing, sight, touch, taste, and smell) The peripheral nervous system controls the functions of the body tissues, including organs. Nerves transmit messages to the brain from the outer parts of the body The nervous system is primarily composed of soft tissues, so proteins are important in maintaining health.

11 Urinary System The urinary system removes waste material from the blood. Includes kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra The kidneys help regulate the makeup of blood and help maintain other internal systems Abnormal levels of proteins can stress the system

12 Endocrine System The endocrine system or hormone system is a group of ductless gland that release hormones into the body Hormones are chemicals that regulate the activities of the body. Examples: regulate growth, reproduction, milk production and breathing rate Hormones are needed in VERY SMALL amounts Oxytocin stimulates milk let down in female animals

13 Digestive System The digestive system provides food for the body and for all of it’s systems Three basic types of digestive systems: Polygastric (ruminant) Monogastric Poultry

14 Polygastic (ruminant)
Ruminants are animals that have stomachs with more than one compartment Ex: cattle and sheep The largest compartment is called the rumen and it can store large amounts of roughage Roughage is hay, grass, silage or other high fiber feed. Ruminants have the ability to break down plant fibers and use them for food better than non-ruminants.

15 Monogastric System Monogastric means having a stomach with one compartment. ex: swine, horses and most all other animals In monogastric systems most of the digestion takes place in the small intestines. Monogastric animals are unable to break down large amounts of roughage so their rations must contain more concentrates. Concentrates are composed mostly of grains that are low in fiber and high in total digestible nutrients.

16 Poultry Digestive System
Chickens swallow their food whole since they have no teeth Food is stored in the crop and passed to the gizzard, which grinds it up. It then passes on to the small intestine for digestion. Poultry do not have true stomachs

17 Part II Major Classes of Nutrients Sources of Nutrients
Symptoms of Nutrient Deficiencies Feed

18 Major classes of Nutrients
Water Muscles and internal organs of animals contain 75% water Water is the solution in which all nutrients are dissolved or suspended for transport in the body Water reacts with chemicals compounds to help break down food Water provides rigidity, allowing the body to maintain its shape and also regulates body temperature

19 Major classes of Nutrients
Protein Major component of muscle and tissue Made up of amino acids Monogastic animals need specific amino acids, ruminant animals need more quantity than quality AMINO ACIDS ARE THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF LIFE!

20 Major classes of Nutrients
Carbohydrates Made up of sugars and starches Provide energy and heat to animals Carbs are used for growth, maintenance, work, reproduction and lactation (milk production) Simple Sugars: fructose and galactose Compound Sugars: sucrose, maltose and lactose Complex forms of carbs: starch and cellulose Carbohydrates that are not quickly used by the body turn into fat and are stored in the body.

21 Major classes of Nutrients
Minerals 15 minerals that are essential to health: Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, potassium, sulfur, iron, iodine, cobalt, copper, fluorine, manganese, molybdenum, selenium and zinc Supports the skeletal system, endocrine system and soft tissues and fluids in the body

22 Major classes of Nutrients
Vitamins Only required in minute quantities Act as a catalyst for other body processes Used in blood clotting, bone formation, reproduction, maintaining membrane health, producing milk and preventing nervous system disorders

23 Major classes of Nutrients
Fat Only small amounts required Mostly used to improve taste of feed Necessary to carry fat-soluble vitamins

24 Sources of Nutrients Proteins
Major sources for animals: soybeans, peanuts, cottonseed and linseed Feed consisting of ground oil seeds with the oil removed is called oil meal Legume hay (peanut, alfalfa or clover) is a good plant source of protein Animal protein contains more of the essential amino acids needed than plant protein Ex: tankage, fish meal, blood meal, skim milk, whey, feather meal and meat products

25 Sources of Nutrients Protein continued…
Urea, a synthetic source of nitrogen made from air, water and carbon, can also be used as a substitute for some protein required by animals.

26 Sources of Nutrients Carbohydrates Major source: cereal grains
Other sources: non-legume hay, grass and molasses

27 Sources of Nutrients Vitamins and Minerals
Ruminants manufacture B-complex vitamins in their rumens Exposure to sunlight provides vitamin D Contact with the soil and feed grown on fertile land provide most of the v&m needed Supplements are available if needed

28 Symptoms of Nutrient Deficiencies
Discuss page 546 Rickets in humans and cattle. Scurvy in humans and guinea pigs

29 Feed Additives Feed additives are non-nutritive substances that are added to promote rapid growth, feed efficiency or to maintain or improve health. Two major groups: growth regulators and anitbiotics Antibiotics prevent or control diseases Common growth regulators include hormones like progesterone, estrogen and testosterone Regulated by government

30 Composition of Feeds dry matter-the material left after all water has been removed from the feed

31 Classification of Feed Materials
Concentrates and Roughages Concentrates are low in fiber and high in total digestible nutrients (TDN) Mostly cereal grains Roughages are high in fiber and low in TDN 3 types: dry, green and silage green roughages are plant materials with high moisture contents Silage is the feed that results from the storage and fermentation of green crops


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