Presentation on theme: "Section 8: Animal Sciences"— Presentation transcript:
1 Section 8: Animal Sciences Unit 26: Animal Anatomy, Physiology and Nutrition
2 Key TermsSee page 533—this will be your assignment on Tuesday!
3 Part INutrition in Human and Animal HealthAnatomy and Physiology
4 Nutrition in Human and Animal Health Proper health is connected to proper nutritionScurvy, anorexia, obesity in humansration: content of food eaten by an animal in 1 dayBalanced ration: a ration that contains all of the needed nutrients in the proper proportions and amountsDeficiency diseases: diseases caused by an improper balance of vitamins and minerals
5 Animal Anatomy and Physiology The internal function and vital processes of animals and their organs are referred to as animal physiology.The various parts of the body are collectively known as anatomy.
6 Skeletal SystemThe skeletal system is made up of bones join together by cartilage and ligaments.Provides support for the bodyProvides protection for the brain and soft organsBone is the main component of the skeletal system.It is composed of 26% minerals (mostly calcium)Bone marrow produces the body’s blood cells and is found inside the bone.
7 Muscular SystemThe muscular system is the lean meat of the animal and the part of the body that is used for human consumption.Muscles provide movement in cooperation with the skeletal system and support life (ex: heart, diaphragm)Voluntary muscles can be controlled by animalsInvoluntary muscles operate in the body without control by the will of the animalMuscles are mostly composed of proteins which are nutrients made up of amino acids.
8 Circulatory SystemThe circulatory system is composed of the heart, veins, arteries , capillaries and lymph system.This system transports food and oxygen to cells and filters waste from the bodyLymph gland secret disease-fighting materials into the body.Vitamins, minerals, proteins and carbohydrates are essential for the function of the circulatory system.
9 Respiratory SystemThe respiratory system provides oxygen to the blood of the animal and removes waste gases such as CO2 from the blood.Composed of the nostrils, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and lungs
10 Nervous SystemThe nervous system is composed of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous systemThe central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord.Responsible for coordinating the movements of animals and responds to all of the senses (hearing, sight, touch, taste, and smell)The peripheral nervous system controls the functions of the body tissues, including organs.Nerves transmit messages to the brain from the outer parts of the bodyThe nervous system is primarily composed of soft tissues, so proteins are important in maintaining health.
11 Urinary SystemThe urinary system removes waste material from the blood.Includes kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethraThe kidneys help regulate the makeup of blood and help maintain other internal systemsAbnormal levels of proteins can stress the system
12 Endocrine SystemThe endocrine system or hormone system is a group of ductless gland that release hormones into the bodyHormones are chemicals that regulate the activities of the body.Examples: regulate growth, reproduction, milk production and breathing rateHormones are needed in VERY SMALL amountsOxytocin stimulates milk let down in female animals
13 Digestive SystemThe digestive system provides food for the body and for all of it’s systemsThree basic types of digestive systems:Polygastric (ruminant)MonogastricPoultry
14 Polygastic (ruminant) Ruminants are animals that have stomachs with more than one compartmentEx: cattle and sheepThe largest compartment is called the rumen and it can store large amounts of roughageRoughage is hay, grass, silage or other high fiber feed.Ruminants have the ability to break down plant fibers and use them for food better than non-ruminants.
15 Monogastric SystemMonogastric means having a stomach with one compartment.ex: swine, horses and most all other animalsIn monogastric systems most of the digestion takes place in the small intestines.Monogastric animals are unable to break down large amounts of roughage so their rations must contain more concentrates.Concentrates are composed mostly of grains that are low in fiber and high in total digestible nutrients.
16 Poultry Digestive System Chickens swallow their food whole since they have no teethFood is stored in the crop and passed to the gizzard, which grinds it up. It then passes on to the small intestine for digestion.Poultry do not have true stomachs
17 Part II Major Classes of Nutrients Sources of Nutrients Symptoms of Nutrient DeficienciesFeed
18 Major classes of Nutrients WaterMuscles and internal organs of animals contain 75% waterWater is the solution in which all nutrients are dissolved or suspended for transport in the bodyWater reacts with chemicals compounds to help break down foodWater provides rigidity, allowing the body to maintain its shape and also regulates body temperature
19 Major classes of Nutrients ProteinMajor component of muscle and tissueMade up of amino acidsMonogastic animals need specific amino acids, ruminant animals need more quantity than qualityAMINO ACIDS ARE THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF LIFE!
20 Major classes of Nutrients CarbohydratesMade up of sugars and starchesProvide energy and heat to animalsCarbs are used for growth, maintenance, work, reproduction and lactation (milk production)Simple Sugars: fructose and galactoseCompound Sugars: sucrose, maltose and lactoseComplex forms of carbs: starch and celluloseCarbohydrates that are not quickly used by the body turn into fat and are stored in the body.
21 Major classes of Nutrients Minerals15 minerals that are essential to health:Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, potassium, sulfur, iron, iodine, cobalt, copper, fluorine, manganese, molybdenum, selenium and zincSupports the skeletal system, endocrine system and soft tissues and fluids in the body
22 Major classes of Nutrients VitaminsOnly required in minute quantitiesAct as a catalyst for other body processesUsed in blood clotting, bone formation, reproduction, maintaining membrane health, producing milk and preventing nervous system disorders
23 Major classes of Nutrients FatOnly small amounts requiredMostly used to improve taste of feedNecessary to carry fat-soluble vitamins
24 Sources of Nutrients Proteins Major sources for animals: soybeans, peanuts, cottonseed and linseedFeed consisting of ground oil seeds with the oil removed is called oil mealLegume hay (peanut, alfalfa or clover) is a good plant source of proteinAnimal protein contains more of the essential amino acids needed than plant proteinEx: tankage, fish meal, blood meal, skim milk, whey, feather meal and meat products
25 Sources of Nutrients Protein continued… Urea, a synthetic source of nitrogen made from air, water and carbon, can also be used as a substitute for some protein required by animals.
26 Sources of Nutrients Carbohydrates Major source: cereal grains Other sources: non-legume hay, grass and molasses
27 Sources of Nutrients Vitamins and Minerals Ruminants manufacture B-complex vitamins in their rumensExposure to sunlight provides vitamin DContact with the soil and feed grown on fertile land provide most of the v&m neededSupplements are available if needed
28 Symptoms of Nutrient Deficiencies Discuss page 546Rickets in humans and cattle.Scurvy in humans and guinea pigs
29 Feed AdditivesFeed additives are non-nutritive substances that are added to promote rapid growth, feed efficiency or to maintain or improve health.Two major groups: growth regulators and anitbioticsAntibiotics prevent or control diseasesCommon growth regulators include hormones like progesterone, estrogen and testosteroneRegulated by government
30 Composition of Feedsdry matter-the material left after all water has been removed from the feed
31 Classification of Feed Materials Concentrates and RoughagesConcentrates are low in fiber and high in total digestible nutrients (TDN)Mostly cereal grainsRoughages are high in fiber and low in TDN3 types: dry, green and silagegreen roughages are plant materials with high moisture contentsSilage is the feed that results from the storage and fermentation of green crops