# Physical Geography Location & Effects.

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Physical Geography Location & Effects

What is Physical Geography?
Examines the relationships among patterns & processes within the environment Study of earth’s physical processes: Geology – rocks and earth formations Environmental science – human interaction with the environment Topography – earth’s features Cartography – map making

How are Physical Factors spatially defined?
Location: The location of a place or thing on the earth’s surface Absolute Location: The exact spot of a place on the earth’s surface -Use Latitude and Longitude to define it Ex.) Toyko, Japan is at 36° N Latitude and 140° E Longitude Relative Location: The location of a place in relation to another place or thing Ex.) Sonic is across the street from Kroger Globe: Scale model of the earth

Latitude- AKA: Parallels
Numbers get higher the further North or South you move away from the Equator Latitude lines measure North or South of the Equator Zero Degrees Latitude is the Equator 90 Degree North (North Pole) 90 Degrees South (South Pole)

KNOW THESE LINES & their latitude measurements!!
Equator 2 Tropics 2 Circles 2 Poles

Longitude Zero Degrees longitude is the Prime Meridian
180 degrees East or West is the International Date Line By international agreement - 0 degrees longitude runs through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England Numbers get higher the farther you move either East of West Longitude lines measure East or West of the Prime Meridian Longitude AKA: Meridians

Where lines of latitude & longitude cross they form a pattern known as:
A Grid System (a global address) Each degree of the earth is equal to 1/360 of the earth Each degree is divided into 60 minutes (‘) Each minute = 60 seconds (“)

The US is in the Western Hemisphere & the Northern Hemisphere
Hemispheres- If you cut the Earth through the Equator, you get two halves: Northern & Southern Hemisphere If you cut the Earth through the Prime Meridian, you get two halves: Western & Eastern Hemisphere The US is in the Western Hemisphere & the Northern Hemisphere

Absolute Location 30°03' 39.60" N 95°09' 19.26" W

Absolute Location

Absolute Location Basic Geography

Absolute Location

Relative Location

0 0 latitude = Equator 0 longitude = Prime Meridian
(Distance from it has large effect on climate) 0 longitude = Prime Meridian (Distance from it has no effect on climate)

Rotation- The spinning of the earth on its axis Takes 24 hours
Creates night & day

Revolution- The orbit of the earth around the sun Takes 365 ¼ days
Creates 4 seasons

Polar Night- When the polar region is tilted away from the sun – the polar area receives 24 hours of darkness When it is pointed toward the sun the area receives 24 hours of daylight

Equinox- Direct rays of the sun are located on the EQUATOR
Days & nights are equal in length Spring (Vernal) & Fall (Autumnal) When it is Spring in the northern hemisphere it is Fall in the southern hemisphere (the opposite is also true)

Solstice- Direct rays of the sun are located on the TROPIC OF CANCER or CAPRICORN Days & nights are not equal in length – summer days are longer – winters nights are longer Summer & Winter When it is Winter in the northern hemisphere it is Summer in the southern hemisphere (the opposite is also true)

Red – LOW LATITUDES *0 – 23.5 N & S Tropics Hot & Humid Green – MID LATITUDES *  N & S Temperate & Mild THE MAJORITY OF THE WORLD’S PEOPLE LIVE IN THE TEMPERATE ZONE Blue – HIGH LATITUDES *  N & S Polar Cold & Dry