GRAMMAR: TRANSITIONAL WORDS TENSES
Components to cover: TRANSITIONAL WORDS TENSES
TRANSITIONAL WORDS Transition words and phrases help make clear connections between ideas and see that sentences and paragraphs flow together smoothly, making them easier to read. Transitional words are words that are used to add, compare, contrast, exemplify, summarize, and put the words in sequence.
FEATURES OF TRANSITIONAL WORDS
Transition signals are connecting words or phrases that act like bridges between parts of your writing. Transition signals act like signposts to indicate to the reader the order and flow of your writing and ideas. They strengthen the internal cohesion of your writing. Using transitions makes it easier for the reader to follow your ideas. They help carry over a thought from one sentence to another, from one paragraph to another, or from one idea to another.
FUNCTIONS OF TRANSITIONAL WORDS?
Example Apples and oranges are types of fruit. Not only fast cars but also slow trucks make up highway traffic. Henri stopped writing so that he could listen to his friend. FUNCTIONS OF TRANSITIONAL WORDS? Transitions function to connect words, phrases, and clauses.
TRANSITION, ADD, COMPARE AND CONTRAST
Example Addition We also visited Miami Beach. 2. Comparison We like them have to study. 3. Contrast Instead of riding, they walked. TRANSITION, ADD, COMPARE AND CONTRAST There are some transitional words that are used to compare and contrast a sentence. Some words are used additionally in sentences.
TRANSITION FOR SUMMARY AND SEQUENCE?
Example Example: To illustrate, I will tell a story. Summary: In sum, you must try hard. Time Sequence: At last, she said yes. TRANSITION FOR SUMMARY AND SEQUENCE? There are some different set of words that are used to explain the transition for a summary, an example and time sequence.
TRANSITION FOR ADDITION
Common Words And Also Besides Too First Next Last Power Terms Moreover Furthermore In Addition
TRANSITION FOR COMPARISON
Simple Ones Also Too Complex Ones In the same way Likewise Similarly
TRANSITION FOR CONTRAST
Simple Contrast Complex Contrast Although But At the same time Yet Despite that Still In contrast Even so In spite of Instead Nevertheless Otherwise Notwithstanding Regardless On the other hand
TRANSITION FOR EXAMPLE
Simple Example Complex Example For example As an illustration For instance In other words Indeed In short In fact That is Of course To illustrate
TRANSITION FOR SUMMARY
Simple Ones Altogether Finally Complex Ones In brief In conclusion In other words In particular In short In summary On the whole That is
ACTIVITY 1 Answer the following questions and write the transition words that helped you make your decision 1.If you can’t get rid of a cold, the flu, or a nagging sore throat, the reason may be your toothbrush. 2. Studies at the University of Oklahoma Dental School have shown that your old toothbrush may carry the germs that are causing your illness. 3. The studies have found that people who change their toothbrushes about every two weeks recover from common winter ills faster that people who use their toothbrushes for a month or more. 4. Old toothbrushes can culture the germs that can cause colds, influenza, pneumonia, strep throat, diarrhea, and sinus disease. 5. Another study found that disease germs can live in an unused toothbrush for as long as a week. 6. They can start to thrive again every time you brush your teeth.
ACTIVITY 1 Answer the following questions and write the transition words that helped you make your decision 1.The relationship between the two parts of sentence 1 is one of a. time c. cause and effect. b. addition d. contrast. 2. The relationship of sentence 5 to the previous sentence is one of a. addition c. time. b. comparison d. contrast.
Transition words are: If , another.
ANSWER TO ACTIVITY 1 Answer the following questions and write the transition words that helped you make your Decision Transition words are: If , another. The relationship between the two parts of sentence is one of a. time b. cause and effect. c. addition d. contrast. The relationship of sentence 5 to the previous sentence is one of a. addition c. time. b. comparison d. contrast.
WHAT ARE TENSES? Example: The Present Tense The Past Tense
The Future Tense WHAT ARE TENSES? Verb tense expresses the time of an event or action. Time and how it is expressed in writing is very important to English readers. The English language has twelve different tenses.
THE SIX ENGLISH TENSES Three Simple Tenses Simple continuous
Present – You walk You are walking I run I am running. Past – You Walked You were walking. I ran I was running. Future – You will walk You will be walking. I will run I will be running.
THE SIX ENGLISH TENSES Three Perfect Tenses Perfect continuous
Present perfect you have walked. I have run you have been walking. I have been running. Past Perfect You had walked. I had run You had been walking. I had been running. Future Perfect You will have walked I will have run You will have been walking. I will have been running.
This tense also expresses general truths or facts that are timeless.
Example 1. She goes to work everyday. 2. They always eat lunch together. 3. Snow falls in the December in Minnesota. 4. Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE? Expresses a habit or often repeated action. Adverbs of frequency such as, often, seldom, sometimes, never, etc. are used with this tense. This tense also expresses general truths or facts that are timeless.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
Example She is typing a paper for her class. He can’t talk. He is fixing the sink right now. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE adjectives This tense is used to describe an action that is occurring right now (at this moment, today, this year, etc.). The action has begun and is still in progress. It can be occurring now, but is temporary
THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE Example
I visited my sister yesterday. We went out to dinner last night. THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE The passive voice requires a "double verb" and will always consist of a form of the verb "to be" and the past participle (usually the "en/ed/t" form) of another verb.
THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
Example I was taking a bath when the doorbell rang. They were eating dinner when the neighbors stopped by for a visit. THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE The past continuous is often used with the simple past to show that one action was in progress when another action occurred.
THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
Example I was studying for an exam while my mother was cooking dinner. We were walking in the park around 7 p.m. last night. THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE The past continuous is used to talk about an activity that was in progress at a specific point of time in the past. The emphasis is on the duration of the activity in the past.
THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
Example He has lived in Modesto for two years. (He began living in Modesto two years ago and he still lives there.) THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE The present perfect is used to talk about an event that began in the past and continues up to the present.
THE PAST PERFECT TENSE Example
The Titanic had received many warnings before it hit the iceberg. I had already eaten when my friend stopped by to visit. THE PAST PERFECT TENSE This tense describes completed events that took place in the past before another past event.
THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
Example She had been driving around the city for three hours before she finally found the right office. THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE This tense is used to emphasize the duration of an action that was completed before another action or event in the past.
THE FUTURE TENSE Example
She is meeting a new client at eleven o’clock. The train leaves at 6:00 a.m. tomorrow. THE FUTURE TENSE The simple present and present continuous are also used to express future time. These are often used used in connection with schedules.
THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
Example We will have finished the exam by the time class ends tomorrow. THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE This tense is used to describe an event or action that will be completed before another event or time in the future. .
THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
Example By the time he finishes law school, we will have been living in the U.S. for eight years. THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE This tense describes an action that has been in progress for a duration of time before another event or time in the future.
Fill in with the right tenses:
ACTIVITY 1 Fill in with the right tenses: 1. Hi, I ________(be) Matt Rotell, a friend of Alice's. 2. Oh, yes. Alice _______(mention) you the other day. Gee, you _________(not look) like a detective. 3. Well, that's good, I ___________(guess). 4. I'm curious. Tell me, how you _______(decide) to become an undercover cop? 5. Well, when I ____(be) a kid, I _____(love) to read detective novels. By the time I _________(be) ten, I ____(read) every book in the Hardy Boys series. I ____(know) that I ___(want) to go into law enforcement.
ANSWERS TO ACTIVITY 1 1. am 2. mentioned, don’t like 3. guess 4. did , decide 5. was, loved, was, had read, knew, wanted.
Fill in with the right tenses:
ACTIVITY 1 Fill in with the right tenses: 6. But according to Alice, you ____(attend) law school nowadays. 7. Right. I ___(get) married last month. I ___(not mind) being on the police force when I ____(be) single, but ever since I ___(meet) Nicole, my wife, I ___(want) to do something less dangerous. 8. I ____(understand). By the way, you ____(have) any luck yet with those counterfeiters? 9. Well, I _____(follow) them for more than a month now, but so far I ___(not be able to) catch them in the act. Sometimes I _____(worry) that by the time they're caught, I'll have my law degree and I'll be defending them!
7. got, didn’t mind, was, met, have wanted 8. understand, have, had
ANSWERS TO ACTIVITY 1 6. are attending, have been attending 7. got, didn’t mind, was, met, have wanted 8. understand, have, had 9. have been following , haven’t been able to, worry
ACTIVITY 1 Change the sentences below to the active voice:
6. The building was damaged by the fire. 7. By whom were you taught French? 8. You will be given a ticket by the manager. 9. The streets were thronged with spectators. 10. We will be blamed by everyone.
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