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Influence of Religion ~ Chapter III ~ Pages 12 - 17.

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1 Influence of Religion ~ Chapter III ~ Pages 12 - 17

2  Three major religions influenced the formation of democracy through their teachings of individual worth, responsibility of individuals, & responsibility to the community.  These religions were…  Judaism  Christianity  Islam

3 Religion  A set of beliefs…  Existence of a higher power, spirits, or god  An explanation of the origins & purpose of humans and their role on earth  Involves rituals, festivals, rites of passage, & space

4 Judaism  The Hebrews (Jews) were monotheistic & believed that God was perfect, all knowing, all powerful, & eternal  Believed God wanted people to live moral lives – unlike the other religions which believed that the gods just wanted rituals & sacrifices  The Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) says that God created man in his own image so they reasoned that each person had dignity because he/she was a child of God  Greeks & Romans believed dignity came from the ability to reason

5  Jews also believed that God gave them the ability to choose between good and evil, thereby making them responsible for their actions.  Jewish people had a written code of laws – The 10 commandments – believed to have been given to Moses by God between 1300-1200 BC  Moral laws as opposed to secular laws & everyone was subjected to them  Leaders & teachers of Judaism, called prophets, spread religion & ideas that people should oppose…  Oppression  Injustice  Help the less fortunate  Live by high moral standards

6 Judaism ~ Basic Principles  Belief in one God  Torah – original 5 chapters of Bible  Prophecy of Moses  Waiting for the coming of the Messiah  Atonement accomplished by sacrifices, penitence, and good deeds

7 Christianity ~ Background  Word Christianity is derived from Christ’s name & is the name of the religion founded by Jesus  Jesus was born somewhere between 6 – 0 BC, depending on which historian you listen to.  He was a Jew and a Roman subject because the Roman Empire had spread to the Eastern side of the Mediterranean  Jesus began teaching around the age of 30 – his message was a mixture of Jewish doctrine, monotheism, and the 10 commandments.

8  He spread the ideas that…  God is a kind & loving God  People should love & take care of each other  People should repent when they sin  If they repent, they would enjoy eternal life in the Kingdom of Heaven  Because of Jesus’ popularity some were referring to him as “King of the Jews” and was viewed as a political threat and was eventually crucified.  After 3 days, he rose from the dead & went to heaven  Christians believe that Jesus is/was the son of God

9  After his death, Jesus’ followers began to spread his message.  Paul was particularly influential with his teachings that Christianity was a universal religion and that everyone is equal in the eyes of Jesus  Man historians believe that those teachings were the foundation of the democratic principle that “all men are created equal”  Even though the Roman Empire didn’t like the Christian or Jewish teachings, they were partially responsible for the spread…  1 st – Roman expulsion of Jews from their homeland in 70 AD  2 nd – Thanks to Constantine, Christianity became the official religion of the Empire in 380 AD  It eventually spread to Europe and beyond

10 Christianity ~ Basic Beliefs  Belief in one God  Father, Son, & Holy Spirit  Covenant (contract with God)  New Testament in Bible  Salvation by grace &/or beliefs  Believers to heaven with eternal life  Conversion of others

11 Islam  Monotheistic religion, began in the early 600’s in Southwest Asia  Based upon the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad  He taught that all people were equal & focused on the worth of the individual, as well as others  Muhammad died at the age of 62 & left behind a legacy of unification of the Arabian Peninsula under Islam

12  Holy Scripture = Qur’an  God = Allah  Followers = Muslims “one who has submitted”  Islam - “submission to the will of Allah”

13 Islam – Basic Beliefs/Practices  There is good & evil  Individuals are responsible for their own actions  Must perform/carry out the Five Pillars  There will be a final day of judgment where each person stands before Allah & he will send them to heaven or hell

14 The Five Pillars of Islam 1.Faith – no god but Allah & Muhammad is the messenger of Allah 2.Prayer – Face Mecca five times a day at a Mosque or wherever they are 3.Alms – Must support the less fortunate. Give money or pay a religion tax to support poor 4.Fasting – Holy month of Ramadan, fast between dawn & sunset 5.Pilgrimage – at least once in life travel to Mecca, Saudi Arabia

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