Presentation on theme: "Language Chapter 5 An Introduction to Human Geography"— Presentation transcript:
1 Language Chapter 5 An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape, 9eJames M. RubensteinChapter 5LanguageVictoria Alapo, InstructorGeog 1050
2 Language & Dialects Dialects Language is a major difference in pattern of communication e.g. English, Yoruba, French, etc.DialectsMinor variations in pattern within a language. E.g. Pidgin English, American English, British English – different types of the same language.Oyo Yoruba, Ogun Yoruba, Lagos Yoruba.French: standard, Creole, etcSpanish: standard (Spain), Mexican, etc
3 Origin, Diffusion, and Dialects of English Origin and diffusion of EnglishOrigin of English in England, see textEnglish coloniesDialects of EnglishDialects in England, textDifferences between British and American English (spelling, pronunciation, etc), e.g. Colour, Saviour, etcDialects in the United States
4 English Speaking Countries English is the official language in 42 countries, including some in which it is not the most widelyspoken language. It is also used and understood in many others.
5 Dialects in the Eastern U.S. Hans Kurath (1949) divided the eastern U.S. into three dialect regions, whose distribution is similar to that of house types (Fig. 4-9).
6 Indo-European Language Family The main branches of the Indo-European language family include Germanic,Romance, Balto-Slavic, and Indo-Iranian. English is in the West Germanic group
7 Romance Branch of Indo-European The Romance branch includes three of the world’s 12 most widely spoken languages(Spanish, French, and Portuguese), as well as a number of smaller languages and dialects.
8 South Asian Languages and Language Families (Indo-Iranian Branch) Indo-European is the largest of four main language families in South Asia The country of India has 18 official languages.
9 Distribution of Other Language Families Classification of languagesDistribution of language familiesSino-Tibetan language familyOther East and Southeast Asian language familiesAfro-Asiatic language familyAltaic and Uralic language familiesAfrican language families
10 Language Families of the World Distribution of the world’s main language families.Languages with more than 100 million speakers are named.
11 Major Language Families Percentage of World Population The percentage of world population speaking each of the main language families. Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan together represent almost 75% of the world’s people.
12 Language Family TreesFamily trees and estimated numbers of speakers for the main world language families.
13 Chinese IdeogramsChinese language ideograms mostly represent concepts rather than sounds.The two basic characters at the top can be built into more complex words.
14 Language Families of Africa The 1,000 or more languages of Africa are divided among five main language families,including Austronesian languages in Madagascar.
15 Languages of NigeriaMore than 400 languages are spoken in Nigeria, the largest country in Africa (by population). English, considered neutral, is the official language, see pg 167.
16 Language Diversity and Uniformity Preserving language diversityHebrew: reviving extinct languages, pg 168Celtic: preserving endangered languagesMultilingual states, e.g. Canada, Nigeria, tecIsolated languages – unchanging thru lack of interaction. E.g. Basque & Icelandic.Australian & New Zealand experience; Read pg 173Global dominance of EnglishEnglish is a lingua franca – common language or language of international communication. Others include, Arabic, Swahili, French, Hausa, etcDiffusion to other languages e.g. “Spanglish” & “Franglais” (pg ).
17 Other Definitions of Languages Official Language – the language in which government records are kept. Includes signage and education.National language – a language tied to just one country. E.g. Japanese, Icelandic, Nepali.Polyglot states – more than one official language recognized. E.g. Israel, Canada, Belgium, India, Switzerland, etc (see next slides). That means a country can be multilingual e.g. Nigeria, and yet only have one official language.
18 American English: Should it be the Official Language? U.S. Constitution did not specify languageU.S. House and Senate disagreeDedication to common language (patriotism) or resentment of changing immigration trends?
19 Language Divisions in Belgium There has been much tension in Belgium between the Flemings, who live in the north and speak Flemish (a Dutch dialect), and the Walloons, who live in the south and speak French.
20 Language Areas in Switzerland Switzerland remains peaceful with four official languages and adecentralized government structure.
21 French-English Boundary in Canada Although Canada is bilingual, French speakers are concentrated in the province of Québec, where 80% of the population speaks French.
23 Internet Hosts, by Language The large majority of internet hosts in 1999 used English, Chinese,Japanese, or European languages.
24 Internet HostsA large proportion of the world’s internet users and hosts are in the developed countries of NorthAmerica, Western Europe and Japan. 50% of people online and 75% of websites use English.