Presentation on theme: "L ANGUAGE Chapter 5. A LITTLE JOKE … What do you call a person who speaks multiple languages? A polyglot What do you call a person who speaks two languages?"— Presentation transcript:
A LITTLE JOKE … What do you call a person who speaks multiple languages? A polyglot What do you call a person who speaks two languages? bilingual What do you call a person who speaks only one language? American!...or monolingual Explanation-only 30% of students graduate from HS with 3 or more years of a foreign language.
L ANGUAGE D IVERSITY 7,299 languages in the world Only 10 languages are spoken by at least 100 million people 100 languages are spoken by at least 5 million people 70 languages are spoken by between 2 and 5 million The remaining 6,000 languages are spoken by less than 2 million
L ANGUAGE B ASICS Language - a system of communication through speech, a collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meeting. Literary tradition- a system of written communication. Official Language- a designated system of communication used by the government for laws, reports, and public objects such as signs, money, and stamps.
E NGLISH English is spoken fluently by 500 million people. English is an official language in 50 countries (there are about 200 countries) 2 billion people live in a country where English is an official language (there are about 6.5 billion people in the world) English was first diffused west from England in 1600’s to the colonies in North America. Ireland in the 1600’s as well. South Asia mid 1700’s. South Pacific in late 1700’s and early 1800’s. Southern Africa late 1800’s. Recently, the US has been responsible for diffusing English to the Philippines in 1899 in Spanish-American war. After 1946 independence English was retained as an official language.
E NGLISH S PEAKING C OUNTRIES Fig. 5-1: English is an official language in 50 countries, including some in which it is not the most widely spoken language. It is also used and understood in many others.
O RIGIN OF E NGLISH Celtic was the original language of the British Isles In 450AD tribes from mainland Europe invaded (Agles, Jutes, and Saxons) Germanic Tribes English evolved from the language spoken by the Angles, Jutes, and Saxons. England was invaded by the Normans in 1066 from France (they spoke French) they made French the official language for the next 300 years. They then went to war with France and English was popularized again.
D IALECTS Dialect- is a regional variation of language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary, spelling, or pronunciation. Standard language- a dialect that is well established and widely recognized as the most acceptable for government, business, education, and mass communication. Develops out of isolation or nationalist spirit to diverge from another culture (Webster ignored English spelling an grammar of England)
W HY IS E NGLISH R ELATED TO O THER L ANGUAGES Language Branch- a collection of languages related through a common ancestral language that existed several thousand years ago. Indo-European Branch - Most Western Languages come from the Indo-European branch. Indo-European – Germanic, Indo-Iranian, Romance, BaltoSlavic Germanic (Language Group- a collection of languages within a branch that share a common
I NDO -E UROPEAN L ANGUAGE F AMILY Fig. 5-5: The main branches of the Indo-European language family include Germanic, Romance, Balto-Slavic, and Indo-Iranian.
K URGAN T HEORY OF I NDO -E UROPEAN O RIGIN Fig. 5-9: In the Kurgan theory, Proto-Indo- European diffused from the Kurgan hearth north of the Caspian Sea, beginning about 7000 years ago. Marija Gimbutas- The Kurgans were nomadic herders, they migrated in search of grasslands for their animals. They took them westward through Europe, eastward to Siberia, and southeastward to Iran and South Asia.
A NATOLIAN H EARTH T HEORY OF I NDO - E UROPEAN O RIGIN Fig. 5-10: In the Anatolian hearth theory, Indo-European originated in Turkey before the Kurgans and diffused through agricultural expansion. Colin Renfrew- believed they diffused from Anatolia (Turkey) westward to Greece and from Greece westward towards Italy, Sicily, Corsica, France, Spain, and Portugal
D ISTRIBUTION OF O THER L ANGUAGE F AMILIES Classification of languages 8 Major Language Families Distribution of language families Sino-Tibetan language family Other East and Southeast Asian language families Afro-Asiatic language family Altaic and Uralic language families African language families
L ANGUAGE F AMILIES OF THE W ORLD Fig. 5-11: Distribution of the world’s main language families. Languages with more than 50 million speakers are named.
M AJOR L ANGUAGE F AMILIES P ERCENTAGE OF W ORLD P OPULATION Fig. 5-11a: The percentage of world population speaking each of the main language families. Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan together represent almost 75% of the world’s people.
L ANGUAGE F AMILY T REES Fig. 5-12: Family trees and estimated numbers of speakers for the main world language families.
C HINESE I DEOGRAMS Fig. 5-13: Chinese language ideograms mostly represent concepts rather than sounds. The two basic characters at the top can be built into more complex words.
L ANGUAGE D IVERSITY & U NIFORMITY Preserving language diversity Hebrew: reviving extinct languages Celtic: preserving endangered languages Multilingual states Isolated languages Global dominance of English English as a lingua franca Diffusion to other languages
O NLINE P OPULATION, 1996 - 2005 Fig. 5-1.1: English is still the largest language on the internet, but there has been rapid growth in many others, especially Chinese.