2 Language Intro A. Languages Where are English Speakers Distributed? A. Origin and diffusion of English1. Intro2. English colonies3. Origin of English in England
3 Language B. Dialects of English 1. Dialects in England 2. Differences between British &American English3. Dialects in the United StatesDialects in the United StatesSettlement in the United StatesNE.SoutheasternMid-Atlantic
4 Language b. Current Dialect differences in the east D. Pronunciation Differences1. Diffusion
5 English Speaking Countries Fig. 5-1: English is an official language in 50 countries, including some in which it is not the most widely spoken language. It is also used and understood in many others.
6 Invasions of England 5th - 11th centuries Fig. 5-2: The groups that brought what became English to England included Jutes, Angles, Saxons, and Vikings. The Normans later brought French vocabulary to English.
7 Old & Middle English Dialects Fig. 5-3: The main dialect regions of Old English before the Norman invasion persisted to some extent in the Middle English dialects through the 1400s.
8 Dialects in the Eastern U.S. Fig. 5-4: Hans Kurath divided the eastern U.S. into three dialect regions, whose distribution is similar to that of house types (Fig. 4-9).
9 Why is English Related to other Languages? A. Indo-European Branches1. Germanic branch2. Indo-Iranian brancha. Indic (Eastern)b. Iranian (Western)3. Balto-Slavic brancha. East Slavic and Balticb. West and South Slavic
10 B. Origin and diffusion of Indo-European 4. Romance brancha. Origin and Diffusionb. Romance Language Dialectsc. Distinguishing between dialectsand languagesB. Origin and diffusion of Indo-European1. Kurgan and Anatolian theories
11 Indo-European Language Family Fig. 5-5: The main branches of the Indo-European language family include Germanic, Romance, Balto-Slavic, and Indo-Iranian.
12 Russian SignRussian is an Indo-European language written in the Cyrillic alphabet, originally brought to Russia by Greek missionaries
13 Germanic Branch of Indo-European Fig. 5-6: The Germanic branch today is divided into North and West Germanic groups. English is in the West Germanic group.
14 South Asian Languages & Language Families Fig. 5-7: Indo-European is the largest of four main language families in South Asia. The country of India has 18 official languages.
15 Romance Branch of Indo-European Fig. 5-8: The Romance branch includes three of the world’s 12 most widely spoken languages (Spanish, French, and Portuguese), as well as a number of smaller languages and dialects.
16 Signs in Barcelona, Spain Signs in Barcelona are written both in Catalán (top) and Spanish (bottom).
17 Port-au-Prince, HaitiHaitian Creole and French are both official languages in Haiti, although English is also used.
18 Kurgan Theory of Indo-European Origin Fig. 5-9: In the Kurgan theory, Proto-Indo-European diffused from the Kurgan hearth north of the Caspian Sea, beginning about 7000 years ago.
19 Anatolian Hearth Theory of Indo-European Origin Fig. 5-10: In the Anatolian hearth theory, Indo-European originated in Turkey before the Kurgans and diffused through agricultural expansion.
20 IV. Where are other language Families Distributed? A. Classification of languagesB. Distribution of language families1. Sino-Tibetan language family2. Other East and Southeast Asianlanguage familiesC. Languages of the Middle East and CentralAsia1. Afro-Asiatic language family2. Altaic and Uralic language families
21 D. African language families 1. Intro2. Niger-Congo3. Nilo- Saharan4. Khoisan
22 Language Families of the World Fig. 5-11: Distribution of the world’s main language families. Languages with more than 50 million speakers are named.
23 Major Language Families Percentage of World Population Fig. 5-11a: The percentage of world population speaking each of the main language families. Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan together represent almost 75% of the world’s people.
24 Language Family TreesFig. 5-12: Family trees and estimated numbers of speakers for the main world language families.
25 Chinese IdeogramsFig. 5-13: Chinese language ideograms mostly represent concepts rather than sounds. The two basic characters at the top can be built into more complex words.
26 Language Families of Africa Fig. 5-14: The 1000 or more languages of Africa are divided among five main language families, including Austronesian languages in Madagascar.
27 Languages of NigeriaFig. 5-15: More than 200 languages are spoken in Nigeria, the largest country in Africa (by population). English, considered neutral, is the official language.
28 A. Preserving language diversity 1. Intro V. Why do people preserve local languages?A. Preserving language diversity1. Intro2. Hebrew: reviving extinct languages3. Celtic: preserving endangered languages4. Multilingual states5. Isolated languagesB. Global dominance of English1. English as a lingua franca2. Diffusion to other languages
29 Ireland Road SignsRoad signs in Ireland are written in both English and Gaelic (Goidelic).
30 Language Divisions in Belgium Fig. 5-16: There has been much tension in Belgium between Flemings, who live in the north and speak Flemish, a Dutch dialect, and Walloons, who live in the south and speak French.
31 Bookstore in Brussels, Belgium The name of the bookstore is printed in both French (top) and Flemish (bottom).
32 Jerusalem Street signA street in Jerusalem was re-named New York after Sept. 11, The street name is shown in Hebrew, Arabic, and English
33 Language Areas in Switzerland Fig. 5-17: Switzerland remains peaceful with four official languages and a decentralized government structure.
34 French-English Boundary in Canada Fig. 5-18: Although Canada is bilingual, French speakers are concentrated in the province of Quebec, where 80% of the population speaks French.
35 Online Population,Fig : English is still the largest language on the internet, but there has been rapid growth in many others, especially Chinese.
36 E-Commerce Languages 2000 & 2004 Fig 5-1.2: English and English-speaking countries still dominate e-commerce, but other languages are growing rapidly.