Presentation on theme: "Respiration Essential Question: How are the various processes under cellular respiration carried out?"— Presentation transcript:
Respiration Essential Question: How are the various processes under cellular respiration carried out?
Using Stored Energy This is the process of releasing the energy that is stored as glucose Can be done by heterotrophs or autotrophs Glycolysis is the first stage (anaerobic) and respiration is the second stage (aerobic) Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm and respiration in the mitochondria The chemical equation is –C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy (heat)
Glucose Glycolysis Krebs cycle Electron transport Fermentation (without oxygen) Alcohol or lactic acid Chemical Pathways
Glycolysis A series of enzyme driven reactions that slowly change glucose The energy released is in the form of ATP and the end result of Glycolysis is pyruvic acid In order to start Glycolysis you need to have a little energy to jump start the system (2 ATP’s)
Glucose To the electron transport chain Glycolysis 2 Pyruvic acid
Respiration Requires oxygen and is therefore aerobic Used the end product in Glycolysis as its starting point to release more energy Releases 34 more ATP molecules during electron transport which requires oxygen as a carrier molecule Releases CO 2 into the atmosphere
Fermentation The process cells use to breakdown glucose when no oxygen is available Used by human cells during times of oxygen deprivation Also used by certain microbes Also used when the correct enzymes for respiration are not available
Lactic Acid Fermentation Process regenerates NAD so that Glycolysis can continue in the cell Pyruvic Acid + NADH Lactic Acid + NAD Done in the muscles during intense exercise because the muscles are producing ATP and using it faster than the lungs can supply them with oxygen for the process –the burning you feel in your muscles is the build up of the acid that is the bi-product of this reaction
Alcoholic Fermentation Occurs with yeast and other microorganisms Pyruvic acid + NADH alcohol + CO 2 + NAD CO 2 is used to make bread rise The alcohol that is produced is the same alcohol that is in beer and wine –if the alcohol is not removed from the system it will kill the microorganisms –The buzzed feeling of being drunk is caused because your cells are being killed by the alcohol
The Krebs Cycle Essential Question: How does the process of the Krebs Cycle work?
Krebs Cycle The end result: Pyruvic acid from glycolysis is broken down ATP, FADH and NADH are generated Occurs in the mitochondria Bi-product is carbon dioxide
Electron Transport This converts the NADH and FADH 2 to ATP This occurs in the inner membranes of the mitochondria Water is a bi-product of this reaction Oxygen is the final acceptor molecule of the transport chain The ATP is created because of a hydrogen gradient on either side of the membrane (like electron transport in photosynthesis)