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Memory Q1 Persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.

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Presentation on theme: "Memory Q1 Persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information."— Presentation transcript:

1 Memory Q1 Persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information

2 Types of memory Q2 Sensory - immediate, initial recording of sensory information Working / short-term- processing briefly stored information Long-term memory - relatively permanent and limitless storage Q3 Flashbulb memory - clear memory of emotionally significant event

3 Memory processes Q4 Encoding Storage Retrieval

4 Encoding Encoding - processing information for storage
Q5 Automatic - unconscious encoding of incidental information Space - the definition of memory was on the first slide Time - I lost my phone - I had it in psych class and in math class Frequency - that’s the third time I’ve seen her today sdrawkcab daer ot nrael nac uoY

5 Effortful encoding Q6 Requires attention and conscious effort
Q7 Rehearsal - conscious repetition Spacing - distributed practice better than massed practice Serial position effect - we remember best the first and last words on a long list

6 Processing Effortful vs automatic Deep vs shallow processing
Focused vs divided attention

7 What we encode Q8 Semantic encoding - meaning, esp words
Acoustic encoding - sounds, word sounds, echoic Visual encoding - iconic, mental images

8 Memory aids – encoding Q9
Imagery - adding an image to a semantic memory helps Mnemonics - generally memory aids Chunking - phone numbers Acronyms - HOMES Hierarchies - both visual and semantic

9 Storage Short-term / working Long term

10 Short term memory Limited in duration and capacity
Magic number seven (Miller)

11 Storage: Long-Term Memory Subsystems Q10
Types of long-term memories Explicit (declarative) With conscious recall Implicit (procedural) Without conscious Facts-general knowledge (“semantic memory”) Personally experienced events (“episodic Skills-motor and cognitive Dispositions- classical and operant conditioning effects

12 How does storage work? Hippocampus is involved in processing memories for long term storage; cerebellum involved in procedural memory Strong emotions - some stress hormones boost learning and retention Q11 Synaptic changes - long term potentiation - after brief stimulation neurons have higher firing potential - practice improves learning?

13 Retrieval Q12 Recognition - identify previously learned item - mc test
Recall - retrieve info learned - fill-in-blank test Relearning - we learn something faster the 2nd time Priming - associations activated – one strand in the neural network can lead to others

14 Retrieval cues Q13 Context - beach / sea experiment
Déjà vu - cues from current situation may trigger association with previous experience - priming Mood congruence - ability to recall experiences that are consistent with current mood - happy, depressed State-dependent - similar to mood, may include drunk, sober, etc

15 Memory errors Q14 Forgetting Encoding failure Storage failure - decay
Retrieval failure

16 Forgetting Q15 Absent mindedness - inattention to detail causes encoding errors Transience - decay over time of unused information Blocking - tip of the tongue phenomenon - information in stored but momentarily inaccessible

17 Distortion Q16 Misattribution - confusing the source of information
Suggestibility - effects of misinformation Bias - someone you disliked is now a friend. How do you remember initial meeting?

18 Intrusion Q17 Unwanted memories we can’t get rid of
Remember Freud’s repression?

19 Encoding errors Memory is very selective - we choose to encode very few sensory memories Inattention to information - effortful processing will fail

20 Storage errors Physical damage to brain Decay from age
Decay from lack of use - memory for foreign language vocabulary Q Ebbinghaus’s curve of forgetting

21 Retrieval errors Q19 Proactive interference Retroactive interference
Motivated forgetting - we may revise memories of unpleasant events

22 Reconstructing memories Q20
We fill in the blanks of incomplete memories We may fill in misinformation We may attribute information to wrong source Eyewitnesses reconstruct memories, especially in response to questions Recovered memories?

23 How to improve your memory
Study repeatedly for shorter periods Rehearse, actively process Make info personally meaningful - “now I know why Grandpa forgets things” Use mnemonics - make up a story, a song Minimize interference Practice recall when information is fresh

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