4 Encoding Encoding - processing information for storage Q5 Automatic - unconscious encoding of incidental informationSpace - the definition of memory was on the first slideTime - I lost my phone - I had it in psych class and in math classFrequency - that’s the third time I’ve seen her todaysdrawkcab daer ot nrael nac uoY
5 Effortful encoding Q6 Requires attention and conscious effort Q7 Rehearsal - conscious repetitionSpacing - distributed practice better than massed practiceSerial position effect - we remember best the first and last words on a long list
6 Processing Effortful vs automatic Deep vs shallow processing Focused vs divided attention
7 What we encode Q8 Semantic encoding - meaning, esp words Acoustic encoding - sounds, word sounds, echoicVisual encoding - iconic, mental images
8 Memory aids – encoding Q9 Imagery - adding an image to a semantic memory helpsMnemonics - generally memory aidsChunking - phone numbersAcronyms - HOMESHierarchies - both visual and semantic
12 How does storage work?Hippocampus is involved in processing memories for long term storage; cerebellum involved in procedural memoryStrong emotions - some stress hormones boost learning and retentionQ11 Synaptic changes - long term potentiation - after brief stimulation neurons have higher firing potential - practice improves learning?
13 Retrieval Q12 Recognition - identify previously learned item - mc test Recall - retrieve info learned - fill-in-blank testRelearning - we learn something faster the 2nd timePriming - associations activated – one strand in the neural network can lead to others
14 Retrieval cues Q13 Context - beach / sea experiment Déjà vu - cues from current situation may trigger association with previous experience - primingMood congruence - ability to recall experiences that are consistent with current mood - happy, depressedState-dependent - similar to mood, may include drunk, sober, etc
16 Forgetting Q15Absent mindedness - inattention to detail causes encoding errorsTransience - decay over time of unused informationBlocking - tip of the tongue phenomenon - information in stored but momentarily inaccessible
17 Distortion Q16 Misattribution - confusing the source of information Suggestibility - effects of misinformationBias - someone you disliked is now a friend. How do you remember initial meeting?
18 Intrusion Q17 Unwanted memories we can’t get rid of Remember Freud’s repression?
19 Encoding errorsMemory is very selective - we choose to encode very few sensory memoriesInattention to information - effortful processing will fail
20 Storage errors Physical damage to brain Decay from age Decay from lack of use - memory for foreign language vocabularyQ Ebbinghaus’s curve of forgetting
21 Retrieval errors Q19 Proactive interference Retroactive interference Motivated forgetting - we may revise memories of unpleasant events
22 Reconstructing memories Q20 We fill in the blanks of incomplete memoriesWe may fill in misinformationWe may attribute information to wrong sourceEyewitnesses reconstruct memories, especially in response to questionsRecovered memories?
23 How to improve your memory Study repeatedly for shorter periodsRehearse, actively processMake info personally meaningful - “now I know why Grandpa forgets things”Use mnemonics - make up a story, a songMinimize interferencePractice recall when information is fresh