Presentation on theme: "Environment and Energy Htun Paw Oo 1 June 2012. Content Environment and Energy Ecosystem services The role of energy Myanmar energy context Way forward."— Presentation transcript:
Content Environment and Energy Ecosystem services The role of energy Myanmar energy context Way forward
Environment external conditions or surroundings, especially those in which people live or work the physical and biological factors along with their chemical interactions that affect an organism (biophysical, water, land, forests, etc.) the culture that an individual lives in, and the people and institutions with whom they interact (social) constructed surroundings that provide the setting for human activity (built environment)
Energy a source of power, e.g., gasoline, fuel-wood Nonrenewable energy, e.g., coal, oil Renewable energy, e.g, wind, solar, biomass, hydropower Energy is at the heart of most critical economic, environmental and developmental issues Clean, efficient, affordable and reliable energy services are indispensable Energy is at the forefront of the global agenda. It is central to the issues of development, global security, environmental protection
Energy sources in Myanmar Current sources Petroleum Natural gas Compressed natural gas (CNG) Hydroelectricity (renewable) Coal Potential sources Wind energy (renewable) Solar energy (renewable) Geothermal (Renewable) Bio-energy (renewable) ◦ Ethanol ◦ Bio-diesel ◦ Gasification ◦ Biogas
Summary of Challenges to Expanding Energy Access and Protecting the Environment SectorChallengeDescriptions Energy AccessPoverty and subsistence needs Fuel-wood collection and charcoal production for cooking and heating place stress on forests and mangrove habitats Policy fragmentationMore than a dozen government agencies Environmental conservation Poverty and subsistence needs Logging and growth in demand in forest products have stressed forest management schemes Policy fragmentationA number of government agencies and non-state actors Source: Review of Rural Energy Access and Environmental Conservation Challenges and Solutions in Myanmar, 2012
Brief on Energy Policies in Myanmar Policy -improving hydroelectric sources of supply, -expanding the grid to rural areas, and -promoting energy efficiency and conservation and development of renewable energy. Myanmar Agenda 21 has identified two programme areas, namely: - Develop a system of comprehensive energy planning, development and management, and; -Improve energy efficiency and energy conservation.
Potentials of Rural / Renewable Interventions in Myanmar Myanmar has also significant potential of renewable energy resources. Renewable energy (RE) means the energy generated from natural resources - such as sunlight, wind, rain, biomass, tides and geothermal heat - which are renewable in nature as these could be naturally replenished and are virtually inexhaustible in duration. ‘renewable energy sources’ hydro, wind, solar, biomass, bio-fuel, cogeneration, urban waste and such other sources RE resources, which are more reliable and clean and require low investment and can be installed in a short period of time, whereas electricity generation from big hydropower within short period of time is quite difficult.
Up-scaling Rural Energy Initiatives in Myanmar Fuel-efficient stoves for cooking; Household electricity for lighting; Electricity for health clinics, schools and public lighting systems and communications; Mechanical power for basic agricultural/food processing & water pumping; and Energy (such as solar dryers and micro-hydros) for village micro-enterprises and cottage industries.
Problems and Constraints High capital investment cost usually not affordable by poor families and communities; Lack of awareness and technological knowledge on RET; Low community awareness on available technologies and modern energy options; Lack of updated and reliable data; No proper financing system and bank support for rural energy projects;
Problems and Constraints Weakness of management and maintenance of renewable energy technologies (RET) projects; Low efficiency application due to lack of energy efficient equipments and appliances; Scattered effort and achievement on RE applications and RET development actions are not harmonized; and No standard and code for manufacturing / production of equipment and institution for certification.
Way Forward Environment -Support and participate in environmental conservation activities -Improve awareness on value of ecosystem services Strategies for energy would be considered as follows: -to develop all the energy resources of Myanmar; -to increase the production level of present existing energy resources; and -to continuously update the unsuppressed energy demand
Way Forward Support the Government to formulate Rural and Renewable Energy Policy and Guidelines Assist / support the Government in developing policies and incentive packages on Rural / Village Electrification from all source of renewable energy and develop guidelines for participation of Private sector / community / Government (PPP) modality Support planning of implementation of extension of RE Demonstration Villages Organize consultation meetings and workshop for capacity building of NGOs / private sector on RETs and assist to promote experience sharing / networking / technology transfer Promoting research and development Need initial technical assistance and capacity building Integrated efforts of concerned ministries and private entrepreneurs