Presentation on theme: "ALTERNATIVE ENERGY RESOURCES Energy Efficiency: Percentage of the total energy input that does useful work and is not converted into LQE. HQE = high-temperature."— Presentation transcript:
ALTERNATIVE ENERGY RESOURCES Energy Efficiency: Percentage of the total energy input that does useful work and is not converted into LQE. HQE = high-temperature heat and chemical energy in fossil and nuclear fuels. LQE = low-temperature heat that is dispersed or diluted and cannot do much useful work. (water vapor/steam) (Recall: 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics) Life Cycle Cost = initial cost + lifetime operating cost. Energy efficient appliances cost more initially, but cost less to maintain and therefore have lower life cycle costs.
ENERGY EFFICIENCY FACTS 84% of all commercial energy used in the USA is wasted. People in the USA unnecessarily waste as much energy as 2/3 of the world’s population consumes (more than $300 billion/year). 43% of the energy wasted is from using “energy inefficient” motor vehicles (SUV’s).
WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? Energy Efficiency = Military, Economic, and Environmental Security! How doe we achieve this? LIFE STYLE CHANGES!
WHAT CAN YOU DO? Walk/bike for short, local trips. Use mass transit (trains, bus, ferry) Wear extra/less layers of clothing instead of turning up/down the thermostat. Turn off lights when not needed.
ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN COMMON ENERGY CONVERSION DEVICES Incandescent Light Bulb 5% Fluorescent Light Bulb 22%
ENERGY EFFICIENCY CONTINUED Gasoline Internal Combustion Engine 10% Steam Turbine 45%
ENERGY EFFICIENCY CONTINUED Coal Combustion = 30 % Efficient
ENERGY EFFICIENCY CONTINUED Nuclear Power = 17 % Efficient With externalities = 8% Efficient Note: The greater the number of steps involved in energy conversion, the lower it’s net efficiency will be.
REDUCING ENERGY WASTE IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE… Decreases rate at which fossil fuels become economically depleted. Allows extended time to phase in renewable energy resources. Decreases dependency on foreign oil resources (NOT DRILLING ANWR!) No longer need to put our service men in danger for political “oil agenda” in the unstable Middle East! Reduces local and global environmental damage. Quickest and cheapest way to slow projected global warming. Saves money, provides jobs, improves productivity, and promotes economic growth per unit of energy – more so than other alternatives. Improves competitiveness in the International Marketplace.
WAYS TO IMPROVE ENERGY EFFICIENCY Slow down the rate at which waste energy flows into the environment (insulate, eliminate leaks, air-to-heat exchangers, energy efficient devices and appliances, Energy Stars Label) 90% efficient; improves indoor air quality
WAYS TO IMPROVE ENERGY EFFICIENCY Cogeneration from Industrial Power Plants – the production of two useful forms of energy from one fuel source (electricity & steam). In US improves Power Plant efficiency from 33% to 90%!
Ways to improve energy efficiency Power Utilities are the largest industry in USA – “regulated monopolies” – most utility companies make more money by increasing the demand for electricity and encourages building more power plants to send electricity to energy inefficient homes. Approximately 20 Utility Companies in the USA are promoting the “Negawatt Revolution” – utilities give customers cash rebates for buying efficient lights and appliances, free home-energy audits, low interest lions for home weatherization/retrofits and lower rates to households/industries meeting energy-efficiency standards.
SAVING ENERGY IN TRANSPORTATION Increase fuel efficiency in motor vehicles. (USA, fuel efficiency has decreased by 5% in the last 15 years due to SUV’s minivans, and trucks) Current US market has 20 car models that are “fuel efficient” (40mpg). If mass produced = decreased use of nonrenewable fossil fuels, decreased air pollution, higher costs and more jobs! Problem: Little interest in consumer market! Fuel subsidies promote waste and prohibit conservation interest. What should we do? Offer rebates and tax cuts to “ecocar” consumers.
HYBRID VEHICLES The 2005 Ford Escape Hybrid can get up to 500 miles on one tank of gas in city driving.
HYBRID VEHICLES Toyota Prius $24,000.00 48mpg; 500 miles/tank of gas MUST ORDER 1 YEAR IN ADVANCE!
OTHER HYBRID MODELS OUT THERE Chevy Tahoe BMW GM Terra 4
HYDROGEN FUELED CELL VEHICLES The Honda FCX, fueled by pure hydrogen, has been certified as a Zero Emission Vehicle Hydrogen exists in chemical forms in ammonia NH3 or methanol CH3OH,or sodium borohydride(NaBH4). These chemicals are seriously considered because they can release pure hydrogen on demand.
GREEN BUILDINGS SAVE ENERGY Focus is on heating, cooling and lighting! South facing – maximize angle of insolation to capture solar energy (passive solar heating). Successive floors hang out over one below to provide shade in summer and reduce air conditioning costs. Energy-efficient lighting (passive lighting through south- facing windows and skylights). For offices focus on desk lighting as opposed to building lighting. Superinsulation & high efficiency natural gas burners. PROBLEM: air tight buildings impair indoor air quality!
ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS Add insulation Plug leaks Use energy efficient windows (double/triple paned) Energy efficient water heaters such as LPG or NG. Buy energy star appliances (refrigerator/freezer, oven, stoves, ranges, dishwashers, washing machines, dryers). Energy efficient lighting (compact fluorescent lighting)
HOW CAN WE MAKE THE CHANGE? Make small life style changes at home. Write to your local representatives to pass and enforce more laws for clean air and sustainable life styles. Put pressure on government to promote R&D for alternative energy resources. Put pressure on government to provide constructive subsidies to sustainable industry; remove destructive subsidies for fossil fuel use…promote energy conservation. Put pressure on government to provide tax rebates for consumers who choose renewable energy over nonrenewable energy resources. SPEAK OUT AND BE HEARD!