Presentation on theme: "2 The Writing Process. 2 2 Learning Outcomes In this chapter, you will learn techniques for…. Discovering ideas about a topic. Planning and organizing."— Presentation transcript:
2 2 Learning Outcomes In this chapter, you will learn techniques for…. Discovering ideas about a topic. Planning and organizing a written document. Composing a document. Getting appropriate feedback on a document. Revising a document. Editing a document. Proofreading a document.
3 3 Seven Steps of the Writing Process 1. Discovering 2. Planning 3. Composing 4. Getting feedback 5. Revising 6. Editing 7. Proofreading
5 5 2. Planning (LO 2.2) Narrowing your focus Clustering Creating a graphic organizer Determining main points Ordering ideas Outlining (informal and formal)
6 6 3. Composing (LO 2.3) Use your discovery and planning stage ideas to create a rough draft. Use your cluster or outline as a guide. Focus on the first four points of the rhetorical star. Concentrate on getting your ideas on paper and not on the presentation.
7 7 3. Composing (contd.) Write the easiest part first to build your confidence. Don’t expect perfection. Write until you’ve covered all of the main points you’ve planned to address. Save your rough draft or place it in a safe location. Take a break.
8 8 4. Getting Feedback (LO 2.4) Conferences –Meet with your instructor for feedback. –Don’t expect your instructor to correct your paper for you. –Learn to revise and edit your own papers. Peer review –Provide and accept constructive criticism. –Utilize peer review with writing on the job.
9 9 4. Getting Feedback (contd.) Tips for Peer Reviewers –Consider the writer’s feelings. –Provide constructive criticism. Tips for Writers –Communicate with the reviewer. –Take the suggestions in stride.
10 4. Getting Feedback (contd.) Tips for working writing tutors –Have a rough draft ready. –Have your instructor’s directions handy. –Have specific questions in mind. –Keep an open mind and a positive attitude.
11 5. Revising (LO 2.5) Adding and deleting ideas –Determine if all of the main points are covered. –Remove points that are unnecessary. –Watch for unneeded repetition. –Choose your main points carefully.
12 5. Revising (contd.) Developing –Check to make sure you have enough details and examples to support your main points. –Try additional discovery techniques. –Make sure you have enough support to prove your thesis.
13 5. Revising (contd.) Arranging –Determine if the order of your ideas makes sense. –Move sentences or paragraphs around to create the best flow. –Consider saving different versions of your draft if you’re working on a computer.
14 6. Editing (LO 2.6) Sentence Structure –Determine if sentences sound awkward. –Check for sentences of varying length. –Watch for choppy sentences. –Clarify long, unclear sentences.
15 6. Editing (contd.) Grammar –Check for subject/verb agreement. –Look for the proper use of pronouns. –Determine if the adjectives selected provide enough description. –Watch for correct adverb usage.
16 6. Editing (contd.) Punctuation –Check for ending punctuation. –Make sure quotation marks are used correctly. –Look for semicolon, colon, and comma usage. –Determine if special punctuation marks are appropriate for the writing.
17 6. Editing (contd.) Spelling –Use a spelling check tool. –Make sure to watch for spelling issues that would not be caught with the spelling check tool. Mechanics –Check capitalization. –Look for abbreviated words. –Make sure numbers are spelled out if needed.
18 6. Editing (contd.) Editing marks – Use editing marks to help edit documents. –Instructors may use them when grading.
19 7. Proofreading (LO 2.7) Check the smallest details. Read your paper aloud. Consider reading from the last sentence to the first sentence. Get an additional peer review for further feedback. Review the paper guidelines provided by your instructor.