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Proofreading, Editing & Revising Customized & Workplace Training AAI/Portland Community College Facilitated by George Knox.

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Presentation on theme: "Proofreading, Editing & Revising Customized & Workplace Training AAI/Portland Community College Facilitated by George Knox."— Presentation transcript:

1 Proofreading, Editing & Revising Customized & Workplace Training AAI/Portland Community College Facilitated by George Knox

2 Proofreading Purpose: Locate and mark errors and needed changes in a document.  Approach w/ “fresh eyes”  Know why you are proofreading  Proof for the audience  Mark problems; don’t fix them  Look for needed changes only  Read both silently and aloud  Proofread in “chunks”  Proof multiple times

3 Proofreading for Revision Purpose: Check content and order for clarification or restatement  Read for overview  Determine purpose of the document  Find the main point or thesis  Find the evidence or details  Check paragraph order and “weight”  Proof paragraphs for relevance and flow  Repeat as necessary

4 Proofreading for Editing Purpose: Find sentence-level problems and mechanical errors  Proofread at least twice  Check your problem areas first  Find topic sentences before supports  Ensure 1 topic sentence per paragraph  Check spelling separate from grammar  Use but don’t trust writing assistants

5 Proofreading Tips  Accept that most drafts are not perfect  Plan/schedule for proofreading  Proof electronically AND hard copy  Proofread multiple times  Read your document aloud  Have someone else proofread  Practice proofreading AND …

6 Proofreading Tips (Cont.)  Organize your proofreading: –Proof in sections. Complete a section before moving on. –Proof for revision first. Make revisions. Then proof for editing. –Proof general to specific (Paragraph – Sentence – Word – Punctuation) –Read backwards (especially for editing)

7 Proofreading for Grammar (Sentence Level)  When proofing and editing, focus on meaning and clarity   Know your grammatical weaknesses, and check those first   Read a sentence aloud to confirm “verbal grammar”   Look for shifts in voice, person and tense   Identify subject, predicate, clauses and phrases within a sentence   Quickly cover the basics: –Complete sentences (and ideas) –Agreement between elements –Clear and appropriate modifying phrases –Correct punctuation   Use the writing assistants to find likely errors (but check again for yourself)   Keep a good grammar guide handy

8 Revising Strategies  Focus –Clarify introduction of main “thesis” –Check for competing ideas –Delete unnecessary text  Content –Emphasize main ideas –Add facts, details, examples, definitions –Rethink central argument/insight  Point of View –Maintain consistency –Change POV?

9 Revising Strategies (Cont.)  Organization –Add/sharpen topic sentences –Move blocks of text –Re-paragraph  Audience Appeal –Use appropriate tone/language –Let the readers know why they are reading –Motivate the readers to read on  The “Rule of Ones”

10 Editing Strategies: Movement  Check paragraphs –Topic sentence followed by support sentences –Transitional sentences/phrases  Arrange paragraphs appropriately –Time (chronological, narrative, process) –Space (descriptive, setting) –Dramatic (build to climax, back load) –Logic (argument, essay)  Link ideas

11 Paragraph Structure  Topic sentence with support sentences (details and examples)  Usually topic sentence comes first  Start a paragraph when you introduce a new topic sentence  Front load vs. back load  Tip: When proofing, mark all topic sentences to check paragraphing

12 Editing Strategies: Linking Ideas  Use key words –Repetition –Variety  Maintain parallel structures –Similar info presented in similar ways –“Visual” balance  Check for consistent style –Between paragraphs/chapters/sections –Subject identity –Perspective

13 Editing Strategies: Transitions  Use “roadmap” sentences/paragraphs  Choose appropriate phrases –Addition (and, also, further, in addition to, moreover, next, too) –Compare (also, in the same manner, in this way, like, likewise, similarly) –Contrast (although, but, even though, however, in contrast, nevertheless, still) –Summary (In conclusion, in other words, in short, therefore, to sum up) –Relation [time, order, place] (after, as, during, finally, later, when, first, second, next, last, above, beyond, farther on, near, opposite) –Logic (as a result, consequently, if, since, so, therefore, thus)

14 Editing Strategies: Sentence Level  Correct grammar –Sentence fragments –Run-on sentence (fused, comma splice) –Subject-Verb agreement –Pronoun references and agreement –Misused modifiers –Active vs. passive voice  Correct spelling and punctuation

15 Specific Problems to Consider  Diction  Paragraph Structure  Document Design  Style  Liability

16 Also Think About …  Utilizing a peer review  Testing documents on sample audiences  Requesting feedback from target audience(s)  Developing measurements of effectiveness  Rotating assignments to assess strengths and weaknesses of writing staff  Group writing for projects

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