Presentation on theme: "Blood Pressure Blood pressure is the force of blood surging against the walls of the arteries. Blood pressure measurements are expressed in two numbers."— Presentation transcript:
Blood Pressure Blood pressure is the force of blood surging against the walls of the arteries. Blood pressure measurements are expressed in two numbers written as a fraction (e.g 120/80). Units used to measure blood pressure are in mm Hg (millimetres Mercury). mm Hg (millimetres Mercury). The higher number represents the systolic pressure and the lower number represents the diastolic pressure. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2A_wy8r93os http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2A_wy8r93os
Systolic Blood Pressure TTTThe systolic pressure is the amount of force exerted when the heart muscle contracts to pump blood into the circulation. BBBBasically it is the pressure of the heart when its ventricles contract.
Diastolic Blood Pressure The diastolic pressure reflects the force of blood flow when the heart is resting between beats. This is when the ventricles of the heart are relaxed and filling with blood, getting ready for their next contraction.
Blood pressure is controlled by the arterioles, the smallest arteries in the circulatory system. When these vessels constrict (narrow), blood pressure rises. When the arterioles dilate (widen), blood pressure drops.
Hypertension High blood pressure or hypertension occurs when there is excessive force exerted on the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood through the circulatory system.
Symptoms of Hypertension Some symptoms of hypertension are: - headaches -swelling of the feet and ankles -mini-strokes -blurred vision -difficulty breathing and fatigue Hypertension can exist for years without causing symptoms. This is what makes it so serious.
Even though a person may experience no symptoms of hypertension, it can “silently” cause serious damage to the heart, blood vessels and kidneys. Hypertension that is not brought under control can lead to a heart attack, a stroke or serious kidney damage.
There are two types of high blood pressure or hypertension: 1.Primary or essential hypertension 2. Secondary hypertension
Primary Hypertension Accounts for more than 90% of all cases of high blood pressure. The term primary or essential indicates that there is no apparent cause for the condition.
Secondary Hypertension Secondary hypertension is the result of another underlying medical problem such as: -genetics-medications -kidney disorders-tumours -pregnancy-alcohol -etc…
Diagnosing Hypertension A person must show elevated blood pressure readings on at least three different occasions, on three different days. This decreases the chance of incorrectly diagnosing someone with hypertension.
Treatment of Hypertension In general, primary hypertension cannot be cured, but it can be controlled by medication and life-style changes such as: - weight-loss -salt restriction -increased physical activity Secondary hypertension can be cured if the underlying disease is cured or kept under control
Hypertension that is left untreated usually worsens, and in time, can cause severe damage to the body’s organs. This increases the risk of stroke, heart attack, and kidney failure.
Prevention: How to Avoid Primary Hypertension Maintain an ideal weight (BMI) Use salt in moderation Exercise regularly Avoid smoking and excessive use of alcohol and caffeine Manage stress effectively
How to Avoid Secondary Hypertension Have regular blood pressure checks if taking oral contraceptives (I.e. birth control pill). Avoid alcohol or use it in moderation. Seek prompt therapy for all illnesses, especially those that are known to trigger secondary hypertension. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t0IngUYN 2OA&NR=1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t0IngUYN 2OA&NR=1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t0IngUYN 2OA&NR=1
Blood Pressure Classification BPNormalPrehypertension Stage I hypertension Stage II hypertension Systolic BP <120120-139140-159 160 and higher Diastolic BP <8080-8990-99 100 and higher