# Camera Functions Using Your Digital Camera. 1. What happens when you press the shutter button down halfway? What does macro mode allow you to do? Pressing.

## Presentation on theme: "Camera Functions Using Your Digital Camera. 1. What happens when you press the shutter button down halfway? What does macro mode allow you to do? Pressing."— Presentation transcript:

Camera Functions Using Your Digital Camera

1. What happens when you press the shutter button down halfway? What does macro mode allow you to do? Pressing the shutter button down halfway focuses the camera’s lens and locks the focus. In auto focus, your camera will choose from a number of focal frames (rectangles). A lens ring, or manual mode allows YOU to control the focusing. MACRO MODE is used for taking close ups, it allows you to focus on objects that are closer to the lens than normal.

Focal Frames

Focusing Modes

2. What is an aperture? What two things does it control? An APERTURE is an adjustable opening in a camera’s lens. It controls the amount of light that enters the lens, and functions in much the same way as the pupil of an eye. Bigger opening = more light Smaller opening = less light Aperture size controls DEPTH OF FIELD (DOF), the amount of the picture, from foreground to background, that is in focus. Large apertures (small #s) = shallow DOF Small apertures (large #s) = large DOF

2. Give an example of a relatively large versus a small aperture number. Typical range = f/1.4 - f/22 1.4 (large), 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22 (small) Expressed as a ratio of the diameter of the aperture to the camera’s focal length Apertures are called f-stop, f stands for focal ratio One f-stop change let’s in half or double the amount of light When expressed as a fraction f = 1 f/4 = 1/4 The f or 1 is commonly dropped for simplicity

Aperture Sizes Smaller numbers = larger apertures Larger numbers = smaller apertures

Apertures

Large Small Large Small

Depth of Field Large DOF Small Aperture f/16 Small DOF Large Aperture f/2.0

3. What 2 things does shutter speed control? Give an example of a relatively fast versus a slow shutter speed. Shutter speed controls the amount of TIME that light is allowed to enter the camera Expressed in seconds Typical range = 30” to 1/2000 2” (slow),1”, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/30 (slow), 1/60, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, 1/1000, 1/2000 (fast) One stop let’s in half or double amount of light Shutter speed controls the appearance of motion. SLOW speeds might blur a moving subject. FAST speeds will stop the action.

Shutter Speed Slow shutter speed 1/3 second Fast shutter speed 1/800 of second

Warning, shutter speed is too slow! Your picture will be blurry

4. Label each of the shooting modes, and explain what the camera selecting for you and WHY? Av or A = aperture value, or aperture priority mode, allows you to select the aperture to control DOF, camera selects shutter speed. Tv, T or S = time value, or shutter priority mode, allows you to adjust shutter speed to control the appearance of motion, camera selects aperture. Landscape = small aperture for large DOF Portrait = large aperture for shallow DOF Action = fast shutter speed to stop action Others?

Mode Selector Dial

Exposure compensation (EV +/-) is a quick way adjust the the amount of light entering the camera by +/- 1-2 stops in order to achieve correct exposure. It makes the photo appear lighter or darker. Use it if the photo looks under or overexposed Example: when taking pictures of a bright snowy scene the camera may “squint” and choose to underexpose the photo resulting in gray snow. To COMPENSATE, increase (+) the exposure until the snow is white again. 5. What is exposure compensation?

What advantage does a digital photographer have over a film photographer when using exposure compensation? Digital photographers have the advantage of instantaneous feedback, i.e. they can preview their pictures on the camera, allowing them to compensate for incorrect exposure while shooting in the field.

-2 _ _ 1_ _ 0 _ _ 2 _ _ +2 Darker------------------------------------Lighter

6. What is resolution? Compression? If you set your camera to high resolution and low compression, how will this affect the quality and the quantity of the pictures you are able to take? RESOLUTION = size of the image (in pixels) 3000 x 2000 pixels = 6,000,000 pixels or 6 megapixels. Higher resolution = ability to make larger prints. 5 megapixels = minimum for a clear 8” x 10” print. COMPRESSION = image quality Higher compression = lower quality Lower compression = higher quality Higher resolution + lower compression = fewer pictures but higher quality. Lower resolution + higher compression = more pictures but lower quality.

7. What does ISO speed control? Give an example of a relatively fast versus a slow ISO. What are the benefits/drawbacks of higher/lower ISO speeds? ISO speed affects the sensitivity of your camera’s sensor (or film) to light ISO = International Organization for Standardization 100 (slow/low), 200, 400, 800, 1600 (fast/high) Fast ISO = high sensitivity/fast exposure Slow ISO = low sensitivity/slow exposure HIGH ISO BENEFIT: allows use of faster shutter speeds in lower light conditions. Used for action photos. HIGH ISO DRAWBACK: more digital noise. LOW ISO BENEFIT: minimum noise for highest quality photos. Used for landscape photos. LOW ISO DRAWBACK: requires longer exposure time.

Film with ISO 400

ISO options on a digital camera

Digital Noise

8. Define Histogram. Why is it useful to be able to view the histogram on your camera? A histogram is a graph that displays the relative distribution of shadows, midtones, and highlights in a photo. It is useful because it may help you determine whether a photo is under or over exposed.

9. If your camera’s light meter calculates correct exposure at f/2.8 and 1/250. Circle an aperture and shutter speed combination that will yield an equivalent exposure with a larger depth of field. Apertures 1.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22 Shutter Speeds 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/15, 1/30, 1/60, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, 1/1000 Move right to choose a smaller aperture yielding a larger DOF Move left equal to number of aperture stops to choose a slower shutter speed & maintain correct exposure

10. What is the purpose of your camera’s light meter? Explain how these modes meter light and give an example of the kind of picture you might take with each. Your camera’s light meter measures the amount of light entering the lens in order to calculate correct exposure. AVERAGE: measures light reflected from whole scene, use for a landscape. CENTER WEIGHTED: priority given to center of frame, use for portraits. SPOT: measures from small spot in center, use when subject is significantly darker/lighter than the background. Evaluative (default, camera chooses)

11. What does changing your white balance mode do? What are 3 different light sources you can adjust it for? Changing your WHITE BALANCE mode allows you to remove unrealistic color casts, so that objects that appear white in person are rendered white in your photos. Different light sources emit different wavelengths and temperatures of light, for example: SUNLIGHT, FLUORESCENT, INCANDESCENT. You can adjust your camera to compensate for the deleterious effects of these light sources.