Presentation on theme: "The End of One War, the Start of Another…. Occupation of Germany Both Germany and Berlin split up into section controlled by the Allies British, American,"— Presentation transcript:
Occupation of Germany Both Germany and Berlin split up into section controlled by the Allies British, American, French, and Russian Germany’s military is reduced to only a police/defense force Liberated lands in Western Europe returned to original control Liberated lands in Eastern Europe remained under Soviet control
Occupation of Japan Complete demilitarization and occupation by MacArthur and American military Japan’s constitution was re-written by the Allies, changing the government to a parliamentary democracy Japan’s emperor was forced to admit that he was not a god as was previously believed for centuries
Postwar World Formation of the United Nations (Oct 1945) Stronger than League of Nations, more binding, with a “powerful” Security Council In theory, only permanent Security Council members can have offensive military to be used as peacekeepers Rise of Cold War Places former allies against each other in an ideological struggle
Differing Postwar Plans United States Encourage the spread of democracy (eventually, just anything that is not communism) Rebuild European governments to promote stability and a new market for American goods Reunite Germany to stabilize it Soviet Union Encourage communism (worldwide workers’ revolution) Control Eastern Europe to protect Soviet borders Keep Germany divided to prevent it from waging war ever again
“The Iron Curtain” “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe…” WINSTON CHURCHILL MARCH5, 1946 In 1947, Truman decides it’s time to stop “babying the Soviets” and develops the policy of containment. Containment- a policy designed to do whatever it takes to halt the spread of communist influence
U.S. Focus After WWII The War on Communism Political Economic
The Truman Doctrine (“containment”) Dedicated to uplifting anticommunist regimes around the world. Many US citizens did not want the US to continue fighting Communism around the world or interfere in other countries’ affairs Congress, however, quickly approved $400 million worth of aid
Communism and Poverty After WWII not only was communism spreading throughout the world but poverty as well. In Western Europe many of the cities were in shambles. There was a shortage of jobs as well as food. Main Question: How can the U.S. help?
The Marshall Plan George Marshall was the U.S. Secretary of State Wanted to help those in Western Europe who are living without shelter, jobs, and food. Why?
The Marshall Plan An assistance program to help rebuild Europe. Would provide food and machinery 12.5 billion dollar program in 1948 (2014 equivalent: $130 billion) Any country left in shambles that was not communist received aid from the U.S. Who refused this aid?
Case Study of Containment: The Korean War Japan ruled Korea until WWII – Korea was split into occupying zones (north – Soviets; south – U.S.) like in Germany North Korea: occupied by Soviets, led by communist leader Kim Il Sung South Korea: occupied by U.S., led by democratic leader U.S. and Soviets left in 1949 North invaded South in 1950 and U.S. offered South support – sending military and money to fight the North Koreans
Was the policy of containment successful? Korea before the war Korea after the war