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‘Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, is a condition in which the arteries have persistently elevated blood pressure. Every time the human heart beats, it pumps blood to the whole body through the arteries.’ – (Medical News Today, 2013) ‘High blood pressure (hypertension) means that your blood is pumping at a higher pressure than normal through your arteries.’ – (Better Health Channel, 2013)
In most cases - No obvious symptoms associated with Hypertension. Hypertension can be present in the body, even if a person is physically feeling well. Hypertension can only be detected by having it checked from a health professional. Checks should occur at least once annually. Hypertension is measured by a Sphygmomanometer, which records two readings: Systolic – ‘Is the highest pressure against the arteries as the heart pumps.’ Diastolic – ‘Is the pressure against the arteries as the heart relaxes and fills with blood.’ Normal systolic pressure – Between 110-130mmHg Normal diastolic pressure – Between 70-80mmHg (Wholify, 2013) Source: Better Health Channel, Heart Foundation
The physical concerns of Hypertension are mainly located in vital organs and functions of the body. Heart – The heart is at a high risk of having a heart attack due to hypertension. Chest pains, called ‘angina’ can occur. This is caused by the heart not receiving enough oxygen from the arteries. Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is when the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to the body. This is caused by weakened chambers, which allows blood to pool into the heart and veins. Hypertension is the highest risk factor for CHF. Kidney – Kidneys filter the body's waste. Hypertension can thicken and narrow blood vessels of the kidneys. As a result of this, the kidneys may filter less waste and potentially cause a build up. This may cause kidney failure. Source: NHLBI
Arteries in the body harden, as people age. Hypertension causes arteries to become stiff and more hardened. This causes the kidneys and heart to work their muscles harder. Eyes – Blood vessels in the eye may burst due to Hypertension. This may cause partial or full blindness. Hypertension causes blood clots to occur. This can cause narrow arteries to become blocked and cause a stroke. (Blogspot, 2013) Source: NHLBI
(1990 - 2000 Data, Australian Residents) A Heart Foundation Survey completed in 2010 found one in three Australians aged 30-65 years had been told by a doctor that they have high blood pressure. This equates to roughly 3.5 million Australians. Source: AusDiab
There is evidence for the US, Australia and Korea indicates that men have slightly higher pressures than women and slightly greater prevalence of hypertension. In the US, the sex difference is reversed at about age 70 and persists throughout the rest of the lifespan. How much these gender differences affect gender differences in cardiovascular disease is not clear. (Wikimedia, 2012) Source: Dunstan HP
Hypertension remains one of the leading causes of death in Australia, accounting for 47,637 or 36% of deaths in 2004. Hypertension is one of the largest causes of premature death in Australia. Hypertension accounts for 19% of all deaths of males, and 18% of all deaths of females. Stroke has been the second most common cause of cardiovascular death since 1968, causing 7% of all deaths for males and 11% of all deaths for females in 2004. Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics (Deviantart, 2013)
Diseases of the circulatory system were responsible for around 27% of total Indigenous male and female deaths for the period 2001-2005. In comparison, these diseases accounted for 34% of all male deaths and 40% of all female deaths for non-Indigenous Australians. Heart attacks and Angina were responsible for 64% of Indigenous male deaths and 49% of Indigenous female deaths, while stroke (caused by Hypertension) accounted for 14% of male deaths and 19% of female deaths. Compared with non-Indigenous Australians, Indigenous males and females experienced higher rates of mortality from diseases of the circulatory system in every age group. This is because the lifestyle of Indigenous Australians has changed (hunter-gather). Alcohol, physical inactivity, nutrition, overweight and obesity highly increases the chance of having Hypertension in Indigenous Australians. Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics
(2001 – 2005) Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics
(2001 – 2005) Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics
Risk Factors High Salt Diet High Saturated Fat Diet Unhealthy Lifestyle People aged over 55 Family History of Hypertension
An unhealthy lifestyle and diet is a high risk factor of Hypertension. A high salt and/or saturated fat diet significantly increases the risk of Hypertension. This is because it causes cholesterol levels to rise in the body, clogging up arteries. People aged 55 and over have a higher chance of having Hypertension, as the risk of having Hypertension increases with age. Women are less likely to have Hypertension, compared to men. A family history of having Hypertension increases the risk of inheriting it. Source: Better Health Channel, Craig Webber
Lack of exercise Heavy drinking Obesity A diet consisting of high salt Kidney disease Cigarette smoking High levels of saturated fat in diet - High blood cholesterol Diabetes Drugs (Contraceptive pill, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, some nasal drops and sprays, cough medicines, eye drops and appetite suppressants. Source: Better Health Channel
Hypertension can be easily managed by healthier lifestyle and diet choices, as the main causes of Hypertension are diet and lifestyle related. Consistent exercising – At least 30 minutes a day of exercise is essential for maintaining a healthy lifestyle. This can include: Light jogging, power walking, dancing or swimming. Avoid heavy lifting, as it causes the heart to pump more blood. Reducing saturated fat and salt intake. Avoiding processed foods (Processed meats, take-away, potato crisps, frozen foods and salted nuts). Consuming nutrient-dense foods (Vegetables, wholegrains, rice, fruits, oily fish, nuts, legumes, milk, yoghurt and lean meats). Drinking a sufficient amount of water daily (8 glasses or 2 litres). DASH Diet – This diet has an emphasis on real foods, heavy on fruits and vegetables, balanced with the right amount of protein, DASH is the perfect weight loss solution. Source: Health Insite, Better Health Channel
No obvious symptoms with Hypertension Mainly caused by lifestyle and diet factors. Can easily be managed by modifying lifestyle and diet. 30 Minutes of light exercising each day. Sufferers should avoid heavy lifting. Consuming more nutrient-dense foods and reducing processed foods. Less salt and saturated fat in diet. (Zahlmann, 2013)
Medical News Today (2013), What is Hypertension http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/150109.phphttp://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/150109.php Accessed 2 nd May 2013 Better Health Channel (2013), High blood pressure (Hypertension) http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Hypertension_means_high_blood_pressure http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Hypertension_means_high_blood_pressure Accessed 2 nd May 2013 Heart Foundation (2013), Cardiovascular conditions http://testing.heartfoundation.org.au/your-heart/cardiovascular-conditions/Pages/blood- pressure.aspxhttp://testing.heartfoundation.org.au/your-heart/cardiovascular-conditions/Pages/blood- pressure.aspx Accessed 3 rd May 2013 NHLBI (2013), Effects of high blood pressure http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/hbp/hbp/effect/effect.htm Accessed 3rd May 2013http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/hbp/hbp/effect/effect.htm AusDiab (2001), Hypertension Statistics 1990-2000 http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/4C844161B2A939BECA25714C00075738/$File/ausd5.pdf Accessed 5 th May 2013 http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/4C844161B2A939BECA25714C00075738/$File/ausd5.pdf Dunstan HP (1996), Gender differences in hypertension http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8872794 Accessed 5th May 2013http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8872794 Australian Bureau of Statistics (2010), The Health and Welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/0/8F08EF0297F11CC6CA2574390014C588?opendocument Accessed 5 th May 2013 http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/0/8F08EF0297F11CC6CA2574390014C588?opendocument Craig Webber (2007), Top 10 high blood pressure risk factors http://highbloodpressure.about.com/od/understandyourrisk/tp/risk_tp.htm Accessed 5th May 2013http://highbloodpressure.about.com/od/understandyourrisk/tp/risk_tp.htm Health Insite (2013), Is your blood pressure healthy? http://www.healthinsite.gov.au/article/your-blood-pressure- healthy?utm_source=google&utm_medium=cpc&utm_term=high%20blood%20pressure&utm_campaign=Articles+(B)%20Look%20up%20Dash%20di et Accessed 6 th May 2013http://www.healthinsite.gov.au/article/your-blood-pressure- healthy?utm_source=google&utm_medium=cpc&utm_term=high%20blood%20pressure&utm_campaign=Articles+(B)%20Look%20up%20Dash%20di et Dash Diet (2013), The dash diet eating plan http://dashdiet.org/ Accessed 7 th May 2013http://dashdiet.org/ Sphygmomanometer picture (2013), Wholify http://www.wholify.com/public/Hypertension-Nutrition-Counseling.jpg Accessed 7 th May 2013http://www.wholify.com/public/Hypertension-Nutrition-Counseling.jpg Heart cartoon (2011), SOS03 http://www.sos03.com/Diseases/Vascular/Arterial_Hypertension Accessed 1st May 2013http://www.sos03.com/Diseases/Vascular/Arterial_Hypertension Human body (2013), Blogspot http://4.bp.blogspot.com/--imbp14105A/US9isNwX6vI/AAAAAAAABnI/3cB6aqFRovI/s1600/Magnetic_Human_body_1- 1000x1000.jpg Accessed 7th May 2013http://4.bp.blogspot.com/--imbp14105A/US9isNwX6vI/AAAAAAAABnI/3cB6aqFRovI/s1600/Magnetic_Human_body_1- 1000x1000.jpg People exercising (2013), Zahlmann http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-YgihpeQQNw8/T0gkhBrlQ2I/AAAAAAAAEGI/8MtntPh7hqo/s1600/keep-exercising.gif Accessed 8th May 2013http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-YgihpeQQNw8/T0gkhBrlQ2I/AAAAAAAAEGI/8MtntPh7hqo/s1600/keep-exercising.gif World Map (2012), Wikimedia http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/7/72/World_Map_WSF.svg.png Accessed 7th May 2013 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/7/72/World_Map_WSF.svg.png Mortality (2013), Deviantart http://mysticalpha.deviantart.com/art/Mortality-284613783 Accessed 8th May 2013http://mysticalpha.deviantart.com/art/Mortality-284613783
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