Presentation on theme: "The female reproductive system also enables a woman to: have sexual intercourse protect and nourish the fertilized egg until it is fully developed The."— Presentation transcript:
The female reproductive system also enables a woman to: have sexual intercourse protect and nourish the fertilized egg until it is fully developed The female reproductive system has two main functions: producing female sex hormones produce and store eggs (ova) The Female Reproductive System
Sexual reproduction couldn't happen without the sexual organs called ovaries. Ovaries Female sex glands that store the ova (egg) and produce female sex hormones. They are located on each side of the uterus. At birth, a female has more than 400,000 immature ova which remain inactive until puberty begins. At puberty, the pituitary gland, located in the central part of the brain, starts making hormones that stimulate the ovaries to produce female sex hormones, including estrogen. The secretion of these hormones causes a girl to develop into a sexually mature woman.
Uterus Hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ with a thick lining and muscular walls that nourishes and protects a fertilized ovum until birth. The uterus contains some of the strongest muscles in the female body. These muscles are able to expand and contract to accommodate a growing fetus and then help push the baby out during labor. Fallopian Tubes A pair of tubes with finger-like projections each attached to a side of the uterus that draw in the ovum. At the other end of each fallopian tube is a fringed area that looks like a funnel. This fringed area (fimbria) wraps around the ovary but doesn't completely attach to it. When an egg pops out of an ovary, it enters the fallopian tube. Once the egg is in the fallopian tube, tiny hairs (cilia) in the tube's lining help push it down the narrow passageway toward the uterus.
Vagina A muscular, hollow, elastic passageway that extends from the uterus to the outside of the body Endometrium The lining of the uterus Cervix The opening of the uterus
Fallopian Tubes Vagina Endometrium Uterus Ova Ovary Fimbria Cervix
Toward the end of puberty, girls begin to release eggs as part of a monthly period called the menstrual cycle. Approximately once a month, during ovulation, an ovary sends a tiny egg into one of the fallopian tubes. Unless the egg is fertilized by a sperm while in the fallopian tube, the egg dries up and leaves the body about 2 weeks later through the uterus — this is menstruation. Blood and tissues from the inner lining of the uterus combine to form the menstrual flow, which in most girls lasts from 3 to 5 days. Menstruation
Day 1 Starts with the first day of your period. This occurs after hormone levels drop at the end of the previous cycle signaling blood and tissues lining the uterus (womb) to break down and shed from the body. Bleeding lasts about 5 days. Day 7 By day 7, bleeding has stopped. Leading up to this time, hormones stimulate follicles to develop on the uterus. Each follicle contains an egg.
Around Day 14 (in a 28 day cycle) Hormones cause the mature follicle to burst and release an egg from the ovary, a process called ovulation. Day 7 to Day 14 One follicle will continue to develop and reach maturity. The lining of the uterus starts to thicken waiting for a fertilized egg to implant there. The lining is rich in blood and nutrients.
If the egg is not fertilized, hormone levels will drop around day 25. This signals the next menstrual cycle to begin. The egg will break apart and shed with the next period. Over the next few days The egg travels down the fallopian tubes toward the uterus. If a sperm unites with the egg, the fertilized egg will continue down the fallopian tube and attach to the lining of the uterus.
Menstrual Problems It's common for women and girls to experience some discomfort in the days leading to their periods. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) includes both physical and emotional symptoms that many girls and women get right before their periods, such as acne, bloating, fatigue, backaches, sore breasts, headaches, constipation, diarrhea, food cravings, depression, irritability, or difficulty concentrating or handling stress. PMS is usually at its worst during the 7 days before a girl's period starts and disappears once it begins. Abdominal cramps Many girls experience abdominal cramps during the first few days of their periods caused by prostaglandins, chemicals in the body that make the smooth muscle in the uterus contract. These involuntary contractions can be either dull or sharp and intense. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) A rare but life-threatening illness caused by toxins released into the body during a type of bacterial infection.
Ectopic pregnancy When a fertilized egg, or zygote, doesn't travel into the uterus, but instead grows rapidly in the fallopian tube. Endometriosis Occurs when tissue normally found only in the uterus starts to grow outside the uterus — in the ovaries, fallopian tubes, or other parts of the pelvic cavity. It can cause abnormal bleeding, painful periods, and general pelvic pain. Ovarian cysts Noncancerous sacs filled with fluid or semisolid material. Although they are common and generally harmless, they can become a problem if they grow very large. In most cases, cysts will disappear on their own and treatment is unnecessary. Problems of the Ovaries and Fallopian Tubes
Maintaining Reproductive Health Bathe regularly Have regular medical exams Practice abstinence