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The Female Reproductive System

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Presentation on theme: "The Female Reproductive System"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Female Reproductive System
Chapter 16, Lesson 3 The Female Reproductive System

2 Female Reproductive Organs
The system has several functions: Producing female sex hormones Storing eggs Female gametes or ova (singular: ovum) Ovaries The female sex glands that store the ova and produce female sex hormones Located on each side of the uterus The hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ that nourishes and protects a fertilized ovum until birth At birth a female has over 400,000 immature ova At puberty, the pituitary gland produces hormones that cause these ova to mature Ovulation The process of releasing a mature ovum into the fallopian tube each month

3 Female Reproductive Organs
Figure 16.8 Cervix Opening of the uterus Uterus Protects and nourishes a developing fetus Urinary bladder Uretha Labia minora Labia majora Ovaries Contain ova and produce hormones Fallopian tubes Ova travel from the ovaries to the uterus Endometrium Tissue that lines the uterus Vagina Passageway from the uterus to the outside of the body, aka the birth canal

4 Female Reproductive Organs cont.,
Ovum is released from an ovary and moves into one of the two fallopian tubes A pair of tubes with fingerlike projections that draw in the ovum Cilia helps to move the ovum in the fallopian tubes Sperm enters through the vagina Muscular, elastic passageway that extends from the uterus to the outside of the body If the sperm is present in the fallopian tubes, the sperm and ovum might unite, resulting in fertilization Produce a zygote, which moves through the fallopian tubes, enters the uterus, where it attaches itself to the uterine wall, blood thickens to nourish the zygote, fetus remains in the uterus until birth

5 Menstruation If pregnancy does not occur, the thickened lining of the uterus, called the endometrium, breaks down into blood, tissue, and fluids Cycle of Menstruation The shedding of the uterine lining The endometrium tissue pass through the cervix, the opening to the uterus, and into the vagina Most females begin their menstrual cycles between the ages of 10-15 At first the period might be irregular but then should become more predictable Endocrine hormones control the cycle Stress, poor nutrition, excessive exercise, low body weight, and illness can influence your period

6 The Menstrual Cycle Figure 16.9

7 Maintaining Reproductive Health
Bathe regularly Have regular medical exams Practice abstinence

8 Breast Self-Exam One week after your menstrual cycle
Look in the mirror using different views Tips of three fingers as memory pads Vertical patterns Light, medium, hard pressure

9 Female Reproductive System Problems
Menstrual Cramps Sometimes occur in the beginning of a menstrual period Light exercise and heat help to relieve them Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) Caused by a hormonal change Symptoms include: anxiety, irritability, bloating, weight gain, depression, mood swings, fatigue Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) Rare, but serious bacterial infection caused by use of tampons Use low absorbency and change them often

10 Infertility and Other Disorders
Endometriosis Uterine tissue grows in the ovaries, fallopian tubes, or the lining of the pelvic cavity Sexually Transmitted Diseases Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Untreated STDs Vaginitis Discharge, odor, pain, itching, or burning Yeast infections Ovarian cysts Fluid filled sac on the ovary Some may disappear on their own, larger ones tend to be removed surgically Cervical, Uterine, and Ovarian Cancers

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