Presentation on theme: "Knowing the stages of growth and development throughout the human lifespan - Lesson 1."— Presentation transcript:
Knowing the stages of growth and development throughout the human lifespan - Lesson 1
Learning Outcomes of Unit 4 You will be able to: 1. Identify and define the stages of growth and development through the human lifespan, 2. Identify, define and apply the potential effects of life factors and events on the development of the individual, 3. Identify and define the physical and psychological changes of ageing.
1.2 – Development Holistic development: comes from the idea of holism which means that things need to be understood as a whole thus including the emotional, physical and social side. Every single aspect of development within a single individual interacts with each other. For example the physical development of an individual will affects their social and emotional development.
Physical Development Conception and Pregnancy ( add video) You will be showed a video which looks both at conception and pregnancy, you need to ensure that you make notes of the video.
Birth and Infancy Babies are born following the 9 months gestation period in their mother’s belly, At this stage of birth babies (neonate) will only be able to take easily digestible food such as milk in the first few weeks in order to grow, Newborn babies do not have fully developed brain but can hear sounds, identify the smell of their own mother, Infant babies are born with various temporary and primitive reflexes.
Primitive Reflexes Definition: reflexes that babies are born with. Rooting reflex: Neonate will turn their heads towards any touch on the cheek, Grasp reflex: if you place your finger in the palm of a neonates hand they will grasp your finger tightly, Startle reflex: if a neonate is startled by a loud noise they will throw their hands and arms outwards, arching their backs, Walking reflex: if a neonate is held upright with their feet touching the ground they will make they will make movement as if trying to walk.
A few more key facts.... Infants have the ability to recognise and interact with people, Babies prefer the sound of human voices to other sounds and soon learn to recognise their mothers voice, Babies cannot hold up their heads, roll over, sit up or use they hand to move objects deliberately thus are helpless when it comes to muscle coordination and control,
Average ages for some type of body control Type of body controlAge Ability to lift head slightly0-1 month Ability to pass an object from one hand to another 6 months Ability to roll over6 months Ability to crawl9 – 10 months Ability to stand alone12 months What is one advantages of such milestone and what is one disadvantage?
Childhood Children grow rapidly at this time but less rapidly than during infancy, By the age of six a child’s head will be 90% of adult size even if the body still has a lot of growing to do, children practical abilities continue to develop for example: At 2 children might be able to climb and run up stairs one step at a time, At 4 children might be able to kick and throw a large ball, At 6/7 children might be able to skip and ride a bicycle.
Adolescence Puberty in girls begins between the ages of 11 and 13 although in some cases it may begin earlier, Boys on the other hand tend to start puberty a little later between 13 and 15 years of age, Puberty is the developmental stage which prepares the body for sexual reproduction. Puberty is triggered by the action of hormones that control sexual development and is usually accompanied by growth spurt
Adolescence continued Girls sexual development during puberty includes the enlargement of breast, development of pubic hair, increasing fat layers under the skin and the start of menstrual period. Boys on the other hand will experience the enlargement of their testes and penis, the development of pubic and facial hair and increased muscle strength. Boys voices will also break and become deeper in tone.
Adulthood Young adults are often at the peak of their physical; performance between the ages of 18 and 28. Most champions of highly active sports are aged between 16 and 30. With age older adults start to lose some of their speed and strength although those changes remain unnoticed outside of competitive sports, There are a number of age related changes that slowly becomes apparent as we grow older such as many people find that they need to wear reading glasses or hair loss specially common in men.
Menopause Women are most fertile in their late teens and early twenties, Risk of miscarriages and pregnancy complications rises with age, Between the ages of 45 and 55 fertility reduces and then comes to an end on a process called the menopause, The menopause takes several years to complete.
What does the menopause involve? Gradual ending of menstruation and reduction of viable eggs in the ovaries, Increase in the production of hormones called gonadotrophins to try and stimulate the eggs, Reduction in sex hormones produced by the women’s ovaries, Associated problems such as osteoporosis which can be caused by a reduction in the production sex hormones, Weight gain (middle aged spread)
What do you think ? Can you think of ay ideas that might help you stay healthy and fit for longer ? Give reasons for your suggestions
Final stages of life The longest human being has lived is just over 122 years, Why do you think there is a limit to life ?
Why is there a limit to life ? 1. Dr Hayflick proposed that most body cells can only renew themselves 50 times of so when they can no longer renew themselves body tissue becomes wasted and eventually we die (Hayflick limit), 2. Hormone production decreases with age and this reduction results in the inevitable breakdown of biological systems, 3. So far however, research has not yet provided a single simple definitive explanations of why there is a maximum lifespan. It may be that there is some truth in all of the different theories above (page 139 book 1)
How to increase your potential lifespan ? Based on the basic information you have been given what things could individuals do in order to increase their potential lifespan ?
Answer... 1. Avoid exposure to toxic substances such as tobacco smoke, 2. Eat a healthy diet with a good balance of fruit and vegetables and fibre, 3. Take regular exercise, 4. Drink plenty of water,