2 What is the planning paradox? PLANNING LESSONSDo you agree with Woodward 2005:25?Jim ScrievenerThe paradox is going to a situation without having planned. If we predetermine what can happen, there wont be evolutionWOODWARD COULD NOT THINK OF A TEACHER WHO HAD NOT DONE ANYTHING BEFORE THE CLASSSCRIEVENER NO IDEA BEFORE THE CLASS WITH LEARNERS WORKING ON WHATEVER IS HAPPENING IN THE ROOM
3 Read the following definitions about lesson plans and identify the most important aspects in each definitionLESSON PLANNING
4 WAYS LESSON PLANNING HELPS TEACHERS Lesson Planning ComponentsBEFORE THE LESSONWAYS LESSON PLANNING HELPS TEACHERSWriting down the aims and the procedures for each stage of the lesson helps us to make sure that we have planned the best possible sequence to enable us to achieve those aims.DURING THE LESSONThe plan can also help the teacher to check timing –the amount of time we plan for each stage –and to check that the lesson is following the sequence we decide on.AFTER THE LESSONWe can keep the plan as a record of what happened, making any changes necessary to show how the lesson was different from the plan. We can then use the plan and notes to help plan the next lesson. (At this stage, the plan may be more like a photograph, a story or a summary, giving us a record of the lesson)
5 Lesson Planning Components Level and number of learners main aimsLevel and number of learnersSubsidiary aimspersonal aimshomeworkaimsprocedurestimetable fitworkStandard components of a lesson plan:stagesinteraction patternsassumptionstiminganticipatedproblemsteaching aids
6 Who we are planning the lesson for 1.LEVEL AND NUMBER OF LEARNERSWho we are planning the lesson for2. TIMETABLE FITHow the lesson is connected to the last lesson and/or the next one3. MAIN AIM(S)What we want learners to learn or to be able to do by the end of the lesson4. SUBSIDIARY AIMSOther things we want learners to be able to do during the lesson because they lead to the main aim5. PERSONAL AIMSAspects of our own teaching we want to develop or improve6. ASSUMPTIONSWhat we think learners already know or can already do related to the aims7. ANTICIPATEDLANGUAGE PROBLEMSThings that learners may find difficult8. POSSIBLE SOLUTIONSAction we will take to deal with the anticipated problems9. TEACHING AIDSMaterials and equipment used in the lesson. Useful reminders of things to take to the lesson10. PROCEDURESTasks and activities for each stage11. TIMINGLength of time needed for each stage12. INTERACTIONPATTERNSWays in which learners work at different stages, i.e. individually, in pairs, in groups, as a whole class13. HOMEWORKWork developed outside the classroom to reinforce and practice the topic
7 Lesson Planning Aims AIMS MAIN AIM: The most important thing we want to achieve in a lesson.PERSONAL AIM:What we would like to improve or focus on in our own teaching.AIMSSUBSIDIARY AIM:The language or skills learners must be able to use well in order to achieve the main aim of the lesson.
8 Lesson Planning Aims MAIN AIM SUBSIDIARY AIMS PERSONAL AIMS To make polite requests in the context of making holiday arrangements.Example exponent:Could you give me some information about hotels?Grammar:To use modal auxiliary verbs to make polite requests when making holiday arrangements.Functional exponents:Could/Would you…?Vocabulary:To list expressions and words for travel accommodationPhonology:To focus on intonation of questionsSpeaking:To give controlled oral practice-To improve my organization of the blackboard-To give clearer examples
9 WHAT’S WRONG WITH THESE MAIN AIMS? To read cultural stories.To listen to instructions of how to make an origami shape.To write a letter to a family member who is abroad.To have the capabilities to introduce themselves in a correct and proper way.To use oral expressions in order to use adjectives in oral context.To use the cellphone after reading instructions.To improve the comprehension of texts.To comprehend what they listened.
10 TaskFor questions 1-7, match the stages of the lesson with the subsidiary aims listed A-H. There is one extra option which you do not need to use.Lesson stagesSubsidiary aims1 Check vocabulary from the last lesson.2 Introduce the topic and elicit/present new words and phrases3 Learners reorder jumbled paragraphs of a text4 Learners match words in the text with possible meanings5 Learners answer true/false questions6 Learner underline examples of reported speech7 Learners exchange texts and give feedbackA focus on formB deduce meaning from contextC peer correctionD check detailed comprehensionE contextualise and pre-teach vocabularyF check learners’ awareness of text organization (pronouns, linking, etc.)G have controlled practice of target structureH revise language already learnt
11 To clarify the meaning of eight verb collocations with money and provide learners with the opportunity to use these in a controlled and more authentic way.To try to keep more closely to estimated timings by quickening the pace, particularly during the language clarification stage.To do a role-play of an interview.To keep instructions clear and well-staged.By the end of the lesson learners will be better able to give a short talk about their job and what it involves.Revise the vocabulary related to clothing.To do the reading on page 98 and then have a discussion based on it.