Presentation on theme: "Nick Yeager Scientist. The term Genetically modified organism comes from plants or crops created for human consumption using the latest molecular biology."— Presentation transcript:
The term Genetically modified organism comes from plants or crops created for human consumption using the latest molecular biology techniques. The plants have been modified in the laboratory to enhance desired traits.
Think of modifying a cat, this cat could be infused with the DNA of a lion for survival instincts, a tiger for jumping, and a cheetah for speed, this cat would be like a super cat having only the desired qualities of the best cats of the wild while having the stomach of a housecat and only eating cat food.
Genetic engineering is the most effective way to make plants with the right traits very rapidly. Plant geneticists can isolate a gene responsible for drought tolerance and insert the gene into a different plant, the new GMO will gain drought tolerance as well. Not only can genes from any plant be used but genes from non-plant organisms as well.
Some of the 40 plants included in these are; Tomatoes, Cantaloupes, Soybeans, Sugarbeets, Corn, and Cotton. Not all of these plants are available in the supermarket. Although most plants in stores is not genetically modified the vegetable oil and cereals contain a small percentage of genetically modified ingredients.
Some advantages of having GMO’s are Pest Resistance, Herbicide tolerance, Disease resistance, cold tolerance, drought tolerance, nutrition, pharmaceuticals, and phytoremediation.
Unintended harm to other organisms, Reduced effectiveness of pesticides, gene transfer to non- target species. Human hazards include; allergenicity, and many other unknown effects on human health.
Getting GM food to the market is a lengthy and costly production and the agribiotech companies wish to ensure a profit in return, most genetically engineered plants have been patented, though consumers are worried that the patented plant seeds will skyrocket in price.
Since December 2002, the law in Australia requires that food labels must show if food has been genetically modified or contains genetically modified ingredients, or whether GM additives or processing aids remain in the final food product. National authorities pass a risk assessment on all the genetically food on the market.
The USA In 1986 it was determined that there was no need to make new laws to regulate genetically modified food Genetically modified food has to follow the same US laws as the health, safety, efficacy, and environmental impacts of similar products derived by more traditional methods.
Food regulatory authorities require that GM foods receive individual pre-market safety assessments prior to use in foods for human consumption. The assessments have to have this information: 1. Information on how the GM plant was developed 2. nucleic acid data that characterizes the genetic change 3. composition and nutritional data of the novel food compared to the original non-modified food 4. potential for new toxins 5. and potential for being an allergen
A huge part in the regulation of GMF. It ensures that the food and drugs for both humans and animals are safe.
In some countries GM foods are not regulated yet. Although, countries with the provisions for GM foods also regulate GMO’s in general, taking into account health and environmental risks.
ConAgra was a company that has been sued due to selling a line of Wesson oils that were advertised as 100% natural and later found that they were using genetically modified ingredients in the oils. Doing that violated California’s false advertising and unfair competition laws and business codes.
The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) (EPA);Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) (EPA);Toxic Substances Control Act The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) (FDA and EPA);Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act The Plant Protection Act (PPA) (USDA);Plant Protection Act The Virus-Serum-Toxin Act (VSTA) (USDA);Virus-Serum-Toxin Act The Public Health Service Act (PHSA)(FDA);Public Health Service Act The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) (FDA)Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act The Meat Inspection Act (MIA)(USDA);Meat Inspection Act The Poultry Products Inspection Act (PPIA) (USDA);Poultry Products Inspection Act The Egg Products Inspection Act (EPIA) (USDA); and The National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA).National Environmental Protection Act
More than 650 meetings were held around the country. Out of 37,000 people, 54% said they never want to see GM crops grown in the country 18% said they would find the crops acceptable if there was no risk of cross- contamination. The other 13% said they wanted more research.
Critics say that the problem with the idea of GM crops being grown is the company’s that will be growing them will only be concerned about gaining a profit and will not care if the food is hazardous. All critics mainly agree on these three main concerns: environmental hazards, human health risks, and economic problems.
Craig Cormick, from the federal government agency Biotechnology Australia, said “Research indicated that only half of Australia would accept GM food”. Professor Philip James said "The perception that everything is totally straight forward and safe is utterly naive. I don't think we fully understand the dimensions of what we're getting into."
Dr Geoffrey Clements says "The genetic modification of food is intrinsically dangerous. It involves making irreversible changes in a random manner to a complex level of life about which little is known. It is inevitable that this hit-and-miss approach will lead to disasters. It must disrupt the natural intelligence of the plant or animal to which it is applied, and lead to health-damaging side-effects."
In conclusion, more people in the world are against GM foods. The reasons for this are because of environmental risks, health risks, and economic risks.