2 Phrasea group of words that acts in a sentence as a single part of speech
3 Participial Phrases First: What is a participle? A participle is a verb form that can function as an adjective.A moving van is parked on our street. (moving is an adjective for van)The confused child was afraid. (confused is an adjective for child)The broken window suggested frightening possibilities. (broken is an adjective for window; frightening is an adjective for possibilities)
4 Participial Phrase Present Participles always end in –ing (moving) Past Participles often end in –ed (striped), but some are irregularly formed (broken).Many commonly used adjectives are actually participles.
5 Participial PhraseA participial phrase contains a participle plus any complements and modifiers.Participial phrases can be placed in various positions in a sentence.They always act as adjectives.The dog saw many ducks swimming in the lake.Barking loudly, the dog approached the water.The ducks, startled by the noise, rose and flew away quickly.The sorely disappointed dog returned to the campsite.
6 Gerund Phrase First: What is a gerund? A gerund is a verb form that ends in –ing and is used in the same ways a noun is used.Cooking is an enjoyable activity.My younger sister likes swimming.Tony gives baking his best effort.
7 Gerund PhraseA gerund phrase contains a gerund plus any complements and modifiers.Cross-country skiing is good exercise.Billie Holiday’s soulful singing delighted many audiences.
8 Gerund PhraseAlthough both a gerund and a present participle end in – ing, they function as different parts of speech. A gerund is used as a noun, whereas a present participle is used as part of a verb phrase or as an adjective.Reading her new book, Isabella became sleepy. (Participle as an adjective)Isabella was reading in the window seat. (participle in a verb phrase)Reading is Isabella’s favorite pastime. (gerund)
9 Infinitive Phrase First: What is an infinitive? An infinitive is a verb form that is usually preceded by the word to and is used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.When you use to word to before the base form of a verb, to is not a preposition but part of the infinitive form of the verb.To stand can be uncomfortable. (infinitive as subject)Infants first learn to crawl. (infinitive as direct object)They have the desire to win. (infinitive as adjective)I was ready to leave. (infinitive as adverb)
10 Infinitive PhraseAn infinitive phrase contains an infinitive plus any complements and modifiers.We stopped to look at the beautiful scenery.To be a good friend is my goal.Obedience school teaches dogs to behave well.
11 Appositive Phrase First: What is an appositive? An appositive is a noun or a pronoun that is placed next to another noun or pronoun to identify it or give additional information about itMy friend Ethan works at a bookstore after school.The appositive Ethan identifies the noun friend.
12 Appositive PhraseAn appositive phrase is an appositive plus any words that modify the appositiveHe is saving money to travel to Bogota, the capital of Colombia.The appositive phrase, the capital of Colombia, identifies Bogota.
13 Appositive PhraseUse commas to set off any appositive or appositive phrase that is not essential to the meaning of the sentence.Ethan’s friend Julie also works at the bookstore.The appositive Julie is essential because Ethan has more than one friend.Eric, Ethan’s twin brother, does not work.The appositive phrase is not essential because Ethan has only one twin brother.