Presentation on theme: "PHRASES. Prepositional Phrases A prepositional phrase is a group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun called the."— Presentation transcript:
Prepositional Phrases A prepositional phrase is a group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun called the object of the preposition. The stairs lead to the attic. [attic is the op “to”] The staircase is too steep for her. [her is the object of “for”] The laid carpeting on the stairs. [stairs is the object of “on”] For a list of common prepositions, see page 435 or refer to the rabbit and log theory.
The Rabbit can do anything with the log, he can: Go above Go under Go around Go through on behind with against beside Be from Go over Go in
Prepositional Phrases Adjectives and other modifiers may be placed between the preposition and its object. Also, a preposition may have more than one object. The staircase leads to the crowded, dusty attic. The staircase leads to the attic and the roof. [2 objects] A prepositional phrase acts in the same way an adjective or an adverb does. Used as an adjective, a prep phrase modifies a noun or a pronoun. Used as an adverb, it modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.
Prepositional Phrases They used the staircase on the left. [adj. phrase modifies staircase] Which of the staircases leads downstairs? [adj. phrase modifies which] At midnight you can come downstairs to the kitchen. [adv. Phrase modifies can come] My grandfather explained that a daily walk is healthful for him. [adv. Phrase modifies healthful] She walks very quickly for a young baby. [adv. Phrase modifies adv. Quickly]
Appositives and Appositive Phrases An appositive is a noun or pronoun that is placed next to another noun or pronoun to identify or give additional information about it…. My friend Paulo sends me long letters from Brazil. An appositive phrase is an appositive plus any words that modify the appositive. He is living and working in Brasilia, the capital city.
Appositives and Appositive Phrases Use commas to set off any appositive or appositive phrase that is not essential to the meaning of a sentence. Paulo’s brother Ernesto also lives there. [The appositive is essential because Paulo has more than one brother.] Dora, Paulo’s only sister, lives in New York. [The appositive phrase is not necessary to identify Dora.] Usually an appositive or app. phrase follows the noun or pronoun it identifies or explains. Occasionally an app. Phrase precedes the noun or pronoun. A skilled mechanic, Paulo could probably find work anywhere.
Verbals and Verbal Phrases A verbal is a verb form that functions in a sentence as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. A verbal phrase is a verbal plus any complements and modifiers. There are three kinds of verbals: participles, gerunds, and infinitives. All three can be expanded into phrases.
Participles and Participial Phrases A participle is a verb form that can function as an adjective. A present participle is made up of the base form of the verb plus -ing: falling. A past participle is usually made up of the base form plus –ed: burned. Some past participles are irregularly formed.
Participles and Participial Phrases Participles are often used as adjectives: No one would eat the burned toast. We were warned to watch out for falling rocks. The fallen tree blocked the winding road. A participial phrase contains a participle plus any complements and modifiers. They can be placed in various positions in a sentence. We watched the best teams playing baseball. The victors, elated by the victory, shook hands with the losers. The badly defeated team accepted its fate with grace.
Gerunds and Gerund Phrases A gerund is a verb form that ends in –ing and is used in the way a noun is used. Eating is something I enjoy. [as subject] My grandfather likes strolling. [as direct object] Tony gives baking his best effort. [as indirect object] How much enthusiasm do you feel for bowling. [as op] Rachel’s favorite pastime is painting. [as pred. nom.] My hobbies, writing and reading, are quiet activities. [appositives]
Gerunds and Gerund Phrases A gerund phrase is a gerund plus any complements and modifiers. Dancing the tango is not as easy as it looks. Fred Astaire’s marvelous dancing will always be exciting. The difference between a present participle and a gerund is that a present participle is used as a verb or an adjective and a gerund is used as a noun. Running around the track, Tommy felt exhilarated. [PP] Running gives Tommy a sense of well-being. [gerund]
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases An infinitive is a verb form that is usually preceded by the word “to” and is used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. When you use the word “to” before the base form of a verb, to is not a preposition but part of the infinitive form. To stand can be uncomfortable. [infinitive as subject] Infants first learn to crawl. [infinitive as direct object] Her aim is to walk. [infinitive as pred. nom.] I am happy to run. [infinitive as adverb] Birds have an instinct to fly. [infinitive as adjective]
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases An infinitive phrase contains an infinitive plus any complements and modifiers. We decided to sail across the lake. The wanted to drive slowly around the park. To run in a marathon someday is my secret ambition. A triathlon requires athletes to train diligently. To complete a triathlon is a success in itself.