Presentation on theme: "Honors English 9 Mrs. Malaspino. Phrase: ◦ a group of related words without a subject and its predicate ◦ used as a single part of speech in a sentence."— Presentation transcript:
Phrase: ◦ a group of related words without a subject and its predicate ◦ used as a single part of speech in a sentence 6 types: ◦ Verb phrase (Main verb + helping verb/s) See “Verb Tenses” notes for additional information ◦ Prepositional phrase (preposition + noun/pronoun) ◦ Appositive phrase (noun + modifiers) ◦ Verbal phrases (based on verb forms) Gerund phrases (-ing verb plus object/modifiers) Infinitive phrases (to+ verb plus object/modifiers) Participial phrases (-ing, -ed, or irregular past participle plus object/modifiers)
Form: Preposition + noun or object pronoun Noun or pronoun is called “object of the preposition” Phrase may also include modifiers Function: Used as adjectives or adverbs Examples: ◦ The house down the street has been unoccupied for a year. “Down the street” is an adjective which modifies “house.” Adjective phrases immediately follow the noun. ◦ After school, I like to walk my dog. “After school” tells WHEN; it is an adverb. Adverb phrases may be found before or after the verb, adverb or adjective being modified.
For each of the sentences below, label the parts of speech, the parts of sentence, and the phrases: ◦ Astute observers in cooking classes notice the granular texture of sugar and salt. ◦ The most interesting sector of the house is the media room. .
Form: ◦ a noun + an modifiers (could include prepositional phrases) ◦ Typically follows the noun it modifies ◦ May or may not be set off with commas. Function: ◦ Defines or renames a noun. Examples: Boticelli, the Renaissance painter, painted angels. Harper Lee’s best selling novel To Kill a Mockingbird won many awards.
For each of the sentences below, label the parts of speech, the parts of sentence, and the phrases: ◦ Ms. Moore, the well informed teacher, tried to explain centrifugal force to her class. ◦ My dog, a shepherd mix, loves dog treats. Using your current vocabulary, create three of your own sentences. Be sure to have at least one appositive phrase, one adjective prepositional phrase and one adverb prepositional phrase. Label the POSpeech, the POSentence, and the phrases
A “Verbal” is a verb form used as a different part of speech in the context of a sentence. ◦ Gerund: a verb which ends in –ing Acts like a NOUN ◦ Infinitive: to + verb (unconjugated form) Acts like a NOUN, ADJECTIVE or ADVERB ◦ Participle: regular past participle (-ed form), irregular past participle (forms vary), or present participle (-ing form) Acts like an ADJECTIVE ◦ A “VERBAL PHRASE” includes a verbal plus any modifiers or objects of the verbal.
Gerunds are –ing verbs that act like nouns ◦ E.g. running, sleeping, eating A GERUND PHRASE includes the gerund plus any modifiers and/or objects of the gerund. GERUNDS AND GERUND PHRASES may be used in any noun position in the sentence ◦ Subject, Direct Object, Indirect Object, Object of a Preposition, Predicate Nominative
GERUND as SUBJECT Traveling through Europe is my dream vacation. ◦ “Traveling” is a noun; it is the subject of the sentence. ◦ “Through Europe” is a modifier—an adverb prepositional phrase modifying “traveling.” GERUND as DIRECT OBJECT I would enjoy traveling through Europe. ◦ In this case “traveling” is the direct object of the main verb, “enjoy.”
GERUND as INDIRECT OBJECT John will give playing the tuba a try. ◦ “playing” is the indirect object; it is a noun telling to what John will give a try. “Try” is the direct object of the verb “will give.” ◦ “the tuba” is the object of the gerund Note that even though gerunds function as NOUNS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF THE SENTENCE, they still maintain some of the qualities of verbs. They are modified with adverbs. They can have objects.
GERUND as PREDICATE NOMINATIVE ◦ My favorite leisure activity is hiking in the mountains. “Hiking” is the predicate nominative; it is a noun which follows the linking verb “is” and renames the subject “activity.” “in the mountains” is an adverbial prepositional phrase modifying “hiking.” GERUND as OBJECT of the PREPOSITION ◦ John grew tired of babysitting his little sister. “Babysitting” is the object of the preposition “of.” “his little sister” is the object of the gerund, completing the thought of the phrase. Note that “of babysitting” is a prepositional phrase modifying “tired.”
Write three sentences, using your current vocabulary words. In each sentence, be sure to include a gerund phrase used in one of the noun positions. Try to vary the noun positions you use. In each sentence, identify all of the different types of phrases you recognize: ◦ Prepositional, Appositive, Gerund, Infinitive, Participial