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The basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled.

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Presentation on theme: "The basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled."— Presentation transcript:


2 The basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled.

3 UNITED NATIONS DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.”

4 UN is the only international entity with jurisdiction for universal human rights legislation UN was established in 1945, following the end of WWII 51 states signed the UN Charter UN helps develop international law BUT it is not a world government. It does not have the authority to make laws, only pass resolutions (make recommendations) It is up to members to put these resolutions into action

5 They committed to preserving peace, collective security and respect for human rights through international cooperation


7 GENERAL ASSEMBLY All UN member states are represented here (all have 1 vote) Currently 193 states in UN 2/3 majority makes decisions on matters (peace, new member admission, etc…) Cannot demand action but its resolutions carry strong moral authority (esp. if vote is almost unanimous) Located at UN Headquarters in NYC, USA

8 Afghanistan 1946 Albania1955 Algeria1962 Andorra1993 Angola1976 Antigua and Barbuda1981 Argentina 1945 Armenia1992 Australia 1945 Austria 1955 Azerbaijan 1992 Bahamas 1973 Bahrain 1971 Bangladesh 1974 Barbados 1966 Belarus 1945 Belgium 1945 Belize 1981 Benin 1960 Bhutan 1971 Bolivia 1945 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992 Botswana 1966 Brazil 1945 Brunei Darussalam 1984 Bulgaria 1955 Burkina Faso1960 Burundi 1962 Cambodia 1955 Cameroon 1960 Canada 1945 Cape Verde 1975 Central African Republic 1960 Chad 1960 Chile 1945 China1945 Colombia 1945 Comoros 1975 Congo (Republic of the) 1960 Costa Rica 1945 Côte d’Ivoire 1960 Croatia 1992 Cuba 1945 Cyprus 1960 Czech Republic 1993 Democratic People’s Republic of Korea 1991 Democratic Republic of the Congo 1960 Denmark 1945 Djibouti 1977 Dominica1978 Dominican Republic1945 Ecuador1945 Egypt 1945 El Salvador 1945 Equatorial Guinea 1968 Eritrea1993 Estonia1991 Ethiopia1945 Fiji1970 Finland1955 France 1945 Gabon 1960 Gambia 1965 Georgia1992 Germany 1973 Ghana 1957 Great Britain 1945 Greece 1945 Grenada 1974 Guatemala1945 Guinea 1958 Guinea-Bissau1974 Guyana 1966 Haiti1945 Honduras 1945 Hungary1955 Iceland1946 India1945 Indonesia 1950 Iran1945 Iraq1945 Ireland1955 Israel 1949 Italy1955 Jamaica 1962 Japan1956 Jordan 1955 Kazakhstan 1992 Kenya1963 Kiribati1999 Kuwait1963 Kyrgyzstan1992 Lao People’s Democratic Republic1955 Latvia1991 Lebanon 1945 Lesotho1966 Liberia 1945 Libya 1955 Liechtenstein 1990 Lithuania 1991 Luxembourg 1945 Madagascar 1960 Malawi 1964 Malaysia 1957 Maldives 1965 Mali 1960 Malta1964 Marshall Islands 1991 Mauritania 1961 Mauritius1968 Mexico1945 Micronesia (Federated States of) 1991 Monaco 1993 Mongolia 1961 Montenegro 2006 Morocco 1956 Mozambique1975 Myanmar 1948 Namibia 1990 Nauru 1999 Nepal 1955 Netherlands 1945 New Zealand 1945 Nicaragua 1945 Niger 1960 Nigeria 1960 Norway 1945 Oman 1971 Pakistan1947 Palau 1994 Panama1945 Papua New Guinea1975 Paraguay 1945 Peru1945 Philippines1945 Poland1945 Portugal1955 Qatar1971 Republic of Korea1991 Republic of Moldova1992 Romania1955 Russian Federation1945 Rwanda 1962 Saint Kitts and Nevis1983 Saint Lucia1979 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines1980 Samoa1976 San Marino1992 Sao Tome and Principe1975 Saudi Arabia1945 Senegal 1960 Serbia 2000 Seychelles1976 Sierra Leone1961 Singapore1965 Slovakia1993 Slovenia1992 Solomon Islands 1978 Somalia1960 South Africa1945 South Sudan 2011 Spain1955 Sri Lanka1955 Sudan1956 Suriname 1975 Swaziland 1968 Switzerland 2002 Sweden 1946 Syria 1945 Tajikistan1992 Thailand1946 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 1993 Timor Leste2002 Togo1960 Tonga1999 Trinidad and Tobago 1962 Tunisia1956 Turkey 1945 Turkmenistan1992 Tuvalu 2000 Uganda1962 Ukraine1945 United Arab Emirates 1971 United Kingdom 1945 United of Republic of Tanzania 1961 United States1945 Uruguay1945 Uzbekistan1992 Vanuatu1981 Venezuela1945 Viet Nam 1977 Yemen1947 Zambia1964 Zimbabwe 1980

9 SECURITY COUNCIL Responsible for maintaining international peace and security Member states are obligated to carry out the SC’s decisions Has 15 members. 5 are permanent. These members have veto power over all decisions of the council NOTE: VETO=can stop the SC from taking action 5 permanent members are: China, France, Great Britain, Russia and USA

10 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL Assist the GA in promoting international, economic and social co-operation and development Has 54 members-elected by the GA for 3 year term

11 SECRETARIAT Provides studies, information and facilities needed by UN bodies for their meetings Carries out tasks as directed by Ban Ki-moon the SC Secretary General (moderator and diplomat for all meetings e.g. SC and GA) is the head of the Secretariat

12 INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE (World Court) Judicial arm of the UN (located in Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands ) Hears only civil cases from member states of the UN Bases its decisions on international law Has had very limited success (many countries do not want to submit themselves to the ICJ) E.g. Saddam Hussain was tried in this court for his war crimes

13 NUREMBERG TRIBUNAL Permanent international criminal court Tried Nazi leaders for crimes punishable under international law Charter of Nuremberg defines 3 classes of international crimes 1. Crimes against peace 2. War crimes e.g. murder, slave labour killing of hostages, etc.. 3. Crimes against humanity e.g. enslavement, murder, deportation

14 In event of war between 2 countries the SC will try to arrange a cease-fire Council may send a peacekeeping mission to area of conflict to help maintain truce Very rarely do they use military action to enforce its decisions Since 1956, Canada has participated in almost all UN peacekeeping missions SC can impose sanctions if states threaten or break peace E.g. SC imposed economic sanctions against Iraq after it invaded Kuwait & refused to withdraw its forces (1990) SANCTIONS-penalties-usually imposed by several nations on another nation for its violation of international law


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