Presentation on theme: "“Why Can’t We Be Friends?”: The Beginnings of WWI Chapter 12, Section 1 November 17, 2010."— Presentation transcript:
“Why Can’t We Be Friends?”: The Beginnings of WWI Chapter 12, Section 1 November 17, 2010
Wilson and War Woodrow Wilson – NOT AN IMPERIALIST. Did, however, want to spread Democracy to avoid war and revolution. MORAL DIPLOMACY – Wilson believed that we should only support Latin American governments that were democratic and supported us… Unfortunately, things didn’t work out so nicely during his presidency.
The Mexican Revolution As Wilson takes office, VICTORIANO HUERTA overthrows their pro-U.S. ruler and seizes control of the Mexican gov’t. Wilson tries to settle this by keeping weapons from Huerta. Eventually, Wilson has to intervene and PANCHO VILLA and his guerillas make attacks on U.S. border cities. He sends John J. Pershing to capture Villa – they never do.
4 REASONS FOR THE BEGINNING OF WORLD WAR I 1) SYSTEM OF ALLIANCES 2) IMPERIALISM 3) MILITARISM 4) NATIONALISM
SYSTEM OF ALLIANCES Since the Franco-Prussian War, Germany and France haven’t been able to get along. Because of this and other conflicts, the major countries of Europe take sides, essentially promising to “have each other’s back” if any one of them go to war. TRIPLE ALLIANCE – Germany, Italy, Austria- Hungary TRIPLE ENTENTE – Russia, France, Great Britain
SPLITTING UP EUROPE TRIPLE ALLIANCE ITALY AUSTRIA-HUNGARY GERMANY TRIPLE ENTENTE FRANCE GREAT BRITAIN RUSSIA
IMPERIALISM Only unified in the 1800s, Germany is the “new kid on the block” when it came to the powerful European nations. Germany had lots of money from being an industrial power, but it did not have all the overseas landholdings of the other European countries. Germany’s becomes jealous and feels like they have “no respect” from the other European countries. This leads Germany to have a chip on their shoulder.
NATIONALISM NATIONALISM – A feeling of pride for one’s homeland and a want to be part of a country with people of a similar background. Austria-Hungary was a country made up people from many different ETHNIC backgrounds. Many SLAVIC people in Austria-Hungary felt like they did not belong. They wanted to be part of a country where they could be with people of a similar background. SERBIA wants A-H’s Slavs to be part of their country. A-H says no way. This leads to tension between A-H and Serbia
MILITARISM With the system of alliances, each country is building up its military in case of war. This is especially true in GERMANY and GREAT BRITAIN. When the Germans increase the size of its navy, it scares Great Britain. This race to see who will build the biggest navy leads to MILITARISM.
ALL HECK BREAKS LOOSE… June 1914 – Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary goes to Bosnia to visit. A Serbian nationalist group – known as the BLACK HAND – assassinates FF. A-H, who was mad at Serbia anyway, goes nuts. A-H gives Serbia an unreasonable list of demands, and when they are not met, A-H declares war.
GERMANY’S “BLANK CHECK” Austria-Hungary acts so quickly because Germany has promised to back them up. Since Austria-Hungary feels like they have the power of Germany, they declare war on July 28, 1914.
The Dominoes Start to Fall… Because of the SYSTEM of ALLIANCES, a little conflict turns into a big conflict. Germany declares war on Russia, and then two days later, they declare war on France.
Allied Powers vs. Central Powers Allied Powers France Russia Great Britain Italy Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Bulgaria
SCHLIEFFEN PLAN Germany knows it can’t fight a TWO- FRONT war… So they devise a plan to invade France quickly, defeat them, then move all of their troops to Russia. On their way to France, Germany goes through BELGIUM. As soon as this happens, Great Britain declares war on Germany.
SCHLIEFFEN PLAN (Cont’d) For the Schlieffen Plan to work, the timing had to go exactly as the Germans had planned. French and British troops held them up in the BATTLE OF THE MARNE, so the Schlieffen Plan doesn’t work. Germany is fighting a two-front war.
Back in America… Wilson is working hard to keep the U.S. out of the conflict. Many Americans, however, start to side with the Allied Powers. The British use PROPAGANDA (information designed to influence opinion) to swing American sentiment. Many U.S. businesses and banks want an Allied victory.
In the Atlantic Ocean… Britain and Germany are using their navies against each other. Britain is searching ships to make sure that no one is bringing valuable materials to Germany. Germany fights this by sending out U- BOATS (German submarines) to sink any ship in the waters around Britain.
THE LUSITANIA In May 1915, U-Boats sink a British passenger boat called THE LUSITANIA. 1200 people die, including 128 Americans. This is the last straw for many Americans, and more people take the side of the Allies. THE SINKING OF THE LUSITANIA DOES NOT GET THE UNITED STATES INTO WORLD WAR I. President Wilson keeps the U.S. neutral, and Germany signs the SUSSEX PLEDGE, saying it won’t sink any more merchant ships without warning.
THE ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM January 1917 – U.S. finds out about a message sent to Mexico from a German official named Arthur Zimmerman. The message says that if the U.S. gets into the war, that Mexico should take Germany’s side. Germany promised to give Mexico the states of Arizona, Texas, and New Mexico as thanks for their support.
The U.S. is in the War February 1917 – Germany starts to break the Sussex Pledge. April 1917 – Woodrow Wilson asks Congress to declare war on Germany and they do. Only a few vote against war, one is JEANNETTE RANKIN, the first woman elected to the U.S. Congress.