2 DiscussionIf the United States were attacked today, what countries would come to our defense?
3 Discussion Why do countries ally themselves militarily with others? For security, or to have greater military strength with which to attack
4 Discussion How do you think other countries would help the United States if it were attacked?Other nations could join in a counterattack on the enemy, protect U.S. citizens living abroad, or use intelligence services to track down enemy agents.
5 Discussion Why might an alliance relationship between two countries end?Conflict over economic or political issues
7 Militarism and Alliances Militarism and Nationalism European nations focused increasingly on military power. Nationalist feelings rose during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as Germany and Italy each formed cohesive states.Triple Alliance and Franco-Russian Alliance The new Germany formed the Triple Alliance with Italy and Austria-Hungary. Russian leaders, fearing German expansion and Austria-Hungary’s domination in southeastern Europe, signed the Franco-Russian Alliance. This set off an arms race.The Triple Entente The British established closer relations with France and Russia. Britain, France, and Russia became known as the Triple Entente.
8 Discussion Why did European nations form alliances during this time period?Nations wished to protect their borders and solidify their power. They formed alliances to help secure themselves against attack and protect their own interests.
9 Discussion How did international alliances help create tensions in Europe?The alliances set certain nations against the others, and reinforced the growing emphasis on militarism and nationalism.
10 European ImperialismEuropean Empires European nations had developed far-flung empires. The Austro-Hungarian Empire and Ottoman Empire, for example, controlled much of southeastern Europe.Rising National Feeling Nationalist feelings arose among people under these empires. The Balkans in particular saw a sharp increase in nationalist feelings.Serbian Nationalism Of the Balkan peoples, the Serbs were the first to form a nation, Serbia. Their nation’s mission was to unite the South Slavs. Russia supported the Serbs, and Austria-Hungary tried to limit Serbia’s growth.
11 Discussion Why would nationalists oppose the idea of imperialism? Nationalists were united by heritage and culture, but imperialists forced people of varying backgrounds to live under the control of one power.
12 European PowersMost of the European powers at that time had colonies in Africa and Asia. Many of the natural resources that Europe needed to maintain their industries came from those areas.The United States became an imperialist power at the same time that European nations were gaining power.
19 War BeginsFranz Ferdinand The assassination of Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand by a Slavic nationalist in Sarajevo was the flashpoint that ignited European tensions to begin World War I.Alliances Activate Austria-Hungary turned to Germany for support against Serbia. Serbia turned to Russia and Russia turned to its ally, France.Declarations of War On July 28, 1914, Austria-Hungary officially declared war on Serbia. Soon after, Germany declared war on Russia and France. Great Britain declared war on Germany after German forces entered neutral Belgium.Allies and Central Powers The Allies included Britain, France, Russia, and Italy. The Central Powers included Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria.
20 Discussion Why might the war in Europe have mattered to the United States?The United States had economic and cultural ties to European nations, especially Britain. They may also note that the domination of one or two strong imperial powers throughout Europe could have endangered rising U.S. global influence.
21 Moving Towards War Neutrality had eroded due to a series of events British blockaded German ports forcing merchant ships sailing to Europe to land at British ports to be inspected for ContrabandContraband- Goods prohibited from shipment to Germany and its allies.This angered Germans and in February of 1915 German announce they will use submarines called U-boats to sink any ship found around British waters.
22 Moving Towards WarMay 7, 1915, British passenger ship called the Lusitaninia is sunk by German U-Boats.128 Americans were on the ship so Americans attitudes towards the war changes.Americans no longer want to stay neutral.Pres. Wilson tried to diffuse the incident, but the next February a UBoat sunk a French passenger ship.Wilson gives one last warning to Germany to stopGermany agrees to stop sinking ship to avoid war with the U.S.
23 Moving Towards WarFebruary of 1917, despite agreeing to not use UBoats to sink ships, Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare and they sink 6 American ships.April 2, 1917, Pres. Wilson asks congress to declare war on Germany.