Presentation on theme: "What is biological therapies Biological therapy is the therapeutic use of agents derived from biological sources and affecting biologic response. Also."— Presentation transcript:
What is biological therapies Biological therapy is the therapeutic use of agents derived from biological sources and affecting biologic response. Also called “immunotherapy” and “biotherapy”. It modifies the body’s immune response resulting in therapeutic effects.
Types of biological therapy Monoclonal antibodies (MAB’s) Cancer vaccines Growth factors for blood cells Cancer growth blockers Anti angiogenics( drugs that block cancer blood vessel growth) Cytokine therapy Gene therapy
The immune system It is complex system of cells and production of antibodies. Can remember previous encounters with immunogens and mount responses on new challenges. Differentiate between “self” and “foregion”. In many cancers, may not recognize the cancer as “foregion” and the immune system does not act against it. some biological therapies stimulate the immune system to attack cancer.
Cont’d The immune system itself is made up several varieties of leukocytes, commonly known as white blood cells, that work together to fight off foreign bodies, such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer. Lymphocyte, dendritic, and monocyte cells are three types of leukocytes that are produced in the bone marrow. These cells are present in the blood circulating throughout the body and are utilized in biological therapy.
How biological therapy works Biological therapy works by stimulating, boosting, restoring or acting like the body’s immune system response against cancer cells. Biological therapy is based on the theory that the immune system helps destroy cancer cells. As part of biological therapy, biological response modifiers (BRMs) work by using the immune system to inhibit the way in which cancer cells mature and reproduce. The restriction of cancer cells is established through the utilization of antibodies and proteins which aid the immune system in its ability to seek out and destroy abnormal cells.
Cancer growth blockers Biological chemicals, like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) produced by the body to control blood vessel growth and cell development, are used in conjunction with one another as a cancer growth blocker. Two main types of cancer growth blockers are Proteasome and Tyrosine Kinase (TKI) inhibitors. Proteasome inhibitors break down unnecessary proteins while TKIs block signals produced by the cancerous cells.
Cytokine therapy Cytokine therapy is used to attack cancerous cells and prevent the formation of new tumors by helping the immune system to be able to identify and destroy cancerous cells
Interferon can improve the way the immune system acts against cancer cells. It also acts directly on cancer cells to slow their growth. Interleuken-2 stimulates the growth and activity of certain immune cells that recognize and destroy cancer cells.
Growth factors for blood cells Colony stimulating factors ( CSFs) and cytokine therapy use proteins to encourage cell renewal and growth. They stimulate the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
Cancer vaccines Vaccines may encourage the person’s immune system to identify cancer cells and stimulate T cells to attack them. For example, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is used to treat bladder cancer.
Gene therapy This therapy introduces genetic material into a person’s cells to repair a mutation. Researchers are looking at ways of using gene therapy to change a person with cancer’s genetic material to fight or prevent disease
Side effects of biological therapy Side effects include flu-like symptoms such as chills, fever, muscle aches, weakness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Some patients develop a rash, and some bleed or bruise easily. In addition, interleukin therapy can cause swelling.