2 Key QuestionsAt the end of this section you should be able to answer the following questions:How does the skin work to prevent disease?How does our body fight against disease causing bacteria and viruses?How do the different immune cells fight disease?
4 Antigen vs. Pathogen Pathogen: A disease causing organism. Examples: Viruses and Bacteria.Antigen:Any foreign substance that can trigger an immune response.Examples: Viruses, Bacteria, Pet Dander, Pollen, etc.
5 Thinking Question:The body’s defenses are divided up into two types, specific and non-specific, in your own words, state what you think each one does.
6 What are the body’s nonspecific defenses against infection? Nonspecific defenses include the skin, tears, and other secretions, the inflammatory response, interferons, and fever.Nonspecific: acts against a wide range of pathogens.
7 First Line of Defense Nonspecific defense Skin: Physical barrier Tears, Saliva, and Mucus: contain lysozyme (enzyme that breaks down bacterial cell walls)Protect eyes, mouth, and nose
8 Second Line of Defense Inflammatory Response, including histamines InterferonsFever
9 Inflammatory Response Causes infected areas to become red and painful, or inflamed.The response is initiated when mast cells release chemicals known as histamines.Mast Cell: found in tissues throughout the body in close proximity to the surfaces of the body. They release histamines when stimulated by pathogens.
10 Inflammatory Response Histamines: increase the flow of blood and fluids to the affected area. This allows white blood cells, including phagocytes, to move into tissues and destroy the invading bacteria.Histamines: Organic Nitrogenous compound, helps white blood cells move from the capillaries into the infected tissues to attack pathogens.Phagocytes: white blood cells that engulf and destroy bacteria.Activity in the area makes that area feel warm.
11 InterferonsInterferons: proteins produced by some host cells to interfere with the creation of viral proteins.Interferons buy time for the body’s specific defenses to respond and attack the viral infection.Interferons are proteins that communicate to nearby cells preparing them to prevent viruses from dividing.
12 FeverThe immune system releases chemicals that signal the hypothalamus to increase body temperature.Low fevers stimulate interferon production and speed up white blood cell growth.Also slows the growth of some pathogens and speeds up the immune response in several ways
13 Specific Defenses: The Immune System What is the function of the immune system’s specific defenses?
14 Specific Defenses: The Immune System The immune system recognizes, attacks and remembers “others” that have invaded.This recognition, response and memory are called the immune response
15 Specific Defenses: The Immune System The Immune System’s specific defenses distinguish between “self” and “other,” and they inactivate or kill any foreign substance or cell that enters the body.
16 B and T CellsB-cells and T-Cells are both produced in the bone marrow. However: B- Cells, mature in Red Bone MarrowT – Cells mature in the Thymus Gland ( anendocrine gland)
17 AntibodiesThe immune system reacts to antigens by attacking the invader or producing cells that make antibodiesThe main role of antibodies is to tag antigens for destruction
19 The Immune System in Action What are the body’s specific defenses against pathogens?Two main styles:Humoral immunityCell-mediated immunity
20 Humoral ImmunityFights pathogens through antibodies that circulate in the blood and lymphThe response is activated when antibodies on B cells bind to antigens on a pathogen.Antibodies have two antigen binding sites on the prongs of the “Y”These bind to specific antigens
21 Cell Mediated Immunity Produces Cytotoxic T Cells, Memory T Cells, and Helper T CellsHelper T-Cells activate Humoral Immune ResponseCytotoxic T-cells destroy infected cells
23 VaccinesA weakened or killed pathogen is injected into a person so their specific defenses will make antibodies to recognize the pathogen.
24 Active and Passive Immunity Active Immunity is acquired from having a disease or getting a vaccination. This is long term.Example: Measles VaccinePassive immunity is acquired from another organism and tends to be short termExample: From mother to baby through breast feeding