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Ch 18 Fighting Diseases.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 18 Fighting Diseases."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch 18 Fighting Diseases

2 Infectious Disease Understanding Infections Disease
Organisms that cause disease are called pathogens Diseases that are caused by pathogens are called infectious disease which is a disease that is caused by the presence of a living thing within the body When you have an infectious disease, pathogens have gotten inside your body and caused harm Pathogens make you sick by damaging individual cells, even though you may feel pain throughout your body

3 Infectious Disease Kinds of Pathogens Bacteria Viruses Fungi Protists
Toxin: other bacterial pathogens damage cells indiretly by producing this Viruses Fungi Protists

4 Infectious Disease How Pathogens Are Spread
Pathogens can spread though contact with either an infected person; soil, food, or water; a contaminated object; or an infected animal Infected People Soil, Food, and Water Contaminated Objects

5 The Body’s Defenses Barriers That Keep Pathogens Out
There are 3 lines of defense against pathogens In the first line of defense, the surfaces of the skin, breathing passages, mouth, and stomach function as barriers to pathogens. These barriers trap and kill most pathogens with which you come into contact Skin Breathing Passages Mouth and Stomach

6 The Body’s Defenses The Inflammatory Response
When body cells are damaged, they release chemicals that trigger the inflammatory response, which is the body’s second line of defense In the inflammatory response, fluid and white blood cells leak from blood vessels into nearby tissues. The white blood cells then fight the pathogens Which Blood Cells Phagocyte is a white blood cell that engulfs pathogens and destroys them by breaking them down Inflammation Fever

7 The Body’s Defenses The Immune System
The immune response is controlled by the immune system, the body’s disease-fighting system The cells of the immune system can distinguish between different kinds of pathogens. The immune system cells react to each kind of pathogen with a defense targeted specifically at that pathogen The white blood cells that distinguish between different kinds of pathogens are called lymphocytes

8 The Body’s Defenses The Immune System T Cells B Cells
Major function of the T cells is to identify pathogens and distinguish one kind of pathogen from another Antigens are molecules that the immune system recognizes either as part of your body or as coming from outside your body B Cells Produce proteins that help destroy pathogens These proteins are called antibodies

9 The Body’s Defenses AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
The virus that causes AIDS is called the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV How HIV Affects the Body HIV is the only kind of virus known to attack the human immune system directly and destroy T cells How HIV is Spread HIV can spread from one person to another only if body fluids from an infected person come in contact with those of an uninfected person How HIV is Not Spread

10 Preventing Infectious Disease
Active Immunity The body produces the antibodies that fight the disease pathogens A person acquires active immunity when their own immune system produces antibodies in response to the presence of a pathogen The Immune Response

11 Preventing Infectious Diseases
Vaccination or immunization Is the process by which harmless antigens are deliberately introduced into a person’s body to produce active immunity Vaccine usually consists of pathogens that have been weakened or killed but can still trigger the immune system to go into action When You Do Get Sick An antibiotic is a chemical that kills bacteria or slows their growth without harming body cells

12 Preventing Infectious Diseases
Passive Immunity Results when antibodies are given to a person – the person’s immune system does not make them A person acquires passive immunity when the antibodies that fight the pathogen come from a source other than a person’s body

13 Noninfectious Disease
Noninfectious disease are disease that are not caused by pathogens in the body and cannot be transmitted from person to person Cardiovascular disease, allergies, diabetes, and caner are some example of noninfectious diseases

14 Noninfectious Disease
Allergies is a disorder in which the immune system is overly sensitive to a foreign substance – something not normally found in the body An allergy develops in response to various foreign substances that set off a series of reactions in the body

15 Noninfectious Disease
Allergies Allergens: any substance that causes an allergy Histamine is a chemical that is responsible for the symptoms of an allergy, such as sneezing and watery eyes Asthma is a disorder in which the respiratory passages narrow significantly

16 Noninfectious Disease
Diabetes Insulin enables body cells to take in glucose from the blood and use it for energy In the condition known as diabetes, either the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin or the body’s cells fail to properly use insulin As a result, a person with diabetes has high levels of glucose in the blood and may even excrete glucose in the urine. The person’s body cells, however, do not have enough glucose Effects of Diabetes Forms of Diabetes

17 Noninfectious Disease
Cancer is a disease in which cells multiply uncontrollable, over and over, destroying healthy tissue in the process How Cancer Develops As cells divide over and over, they often form abnormal tissue masses called tumors Causes of Cancer Some substances or factors in the environment, called carcinogens, can cause cancer (tar, ultraviolet light) Cancer Treatment Cancer Prevention

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