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1974 1998 Continuing dominance of “language of instruction” debate.

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Presentation on theme: "1974 1998 Continuing dominance of “language of instruction” debate."— Presentation transcript:

1 1974 1998 Continuing dominance of “language of instruction” debate.

2 Goldenberg & Coleman

3 Promoting Academic Achievement Among English Learners Breaks down the two reports (NLP and CREDE) for educators and practitioners to better understand what the research supports and does not support in terms of ELL. For example, the use of culturally accommodated instruction promote engagement and higher-level participation but this is not the same as achievement, hence a mixed result. Overall, the emphasis is on teacher’s good literacy teaching skills over sociocultural or other possible barriers. One point of concern is that while the authors mention the correlation between students’ language acquisition and SES, there seem to be no forward-looking action beyond the fact of knowing that such correlation exists. Emily

4 Considerations for English Learners’ Literacy Development: What the Research Says Nature of Literacy Instruction: Like native English speakers, ELs can benefit from quality instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, oral language fluency, vocabulary, reading comprehension and writing. However, the instructional effects for ELs tend to vary across these literacy components and are typically smaller than the effects for native English speakers. Use of Instructional Modifications: While the research base on modifications for EL literacy instruction is limited, promising practices may include: giving clear and focused instructions; incorporating visuals that graphically illustrate important concepts; using familiar/culturally-relevant reading materials, affording opportunities for extra practice; and providing instruction in ELs’ primary language to preview/explain reading materials, skills, and strategies. Use of primary language: There is evidence that literacy instruction in ELs’ primary language can improve their levels of English acquisition, bilingualism, and biliteracy. The effect sizes tend to be modest, however, and due to a lack of research, many questions remain about the role of ELs’ primary language in instruction. Source: Promoting Academic Achievement Among English Learners: A Guide to the Research (Goldenberg & Coleman 2010) Andrea

5 Promoting Academic Achievement Among English Learners (by C. Goldenberg & R. Coleman) Home Language (L1) – Assess, teach & maintain literacy skills of students’ L1 – Teachers can use L1 to preview, clarify, and explain lessons before English lessons are taught Instructional modifications for ELLs – Make instructions and expectations extremely clear, focused, & systematic – Use visuals, including graphic organizers, to illustrate concepts – Use primary language for support Instruction for ELLs must be – Explicit – Cognitively challenging – Linguistically challenging Elizabeth

6 Promoting Academic Achievement Among English Learners (by C. Goldenberg & R. Coleman) Oral Language Development for ELLs – Include daily oral English language instruction – Explicitly teach elements of English (i.e. vocabulary, syntax, conventions), social conventions (i.e. greetings, conversational conventions), and strategies for how to learn the language (i.e. note taking, selective attention, summarizing) – Provide sufficient opportunities for authentic and functional English use – Promote academic language in additional to conversational English District & School Role – School Administrators & ELL experts must be current on research regarding teaching ESL – Coherence between schools, grades, and classes on ESL instruction & accountability – Ongoing, informative assessments teachers can use – Ongoing PD for school staff on ESL strategies Elizabeth

7 Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills (BICS) (Cummins, 1979) Used for communicating in everyday social interactions Language  relatively informal, contextualized, cognitively less demanding, used in most social interactions, and generally learned more easily Everyday Speech & Conversations ----------Content-Based ELD (Language Development) Academic Language----------Sheltered Instruction (Content Instruction) Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) (Cummins, 1979) Oral and written language related to literacy and academic language Language  formal, abstract, used in academic and explicit teaching and learning situations, more demanding cognitively, and more challenging to learn WHILE FULL LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY IS THE ABILITY TO USE LANGUAGE FOR A WIDE RANGE OF PURPOSES, SCHOOL SUCCESS IS PARTICULAR DEPENDENT UPON ACADEMIC LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY AND FLUENCY Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) an instructional model that targets both language and content objectives, a “double-barreled approach,” in order to make progress in both English Language development and academic content knowledge simultaneously. Studies on effects on student learning—results were slightly modest. Alvaro

8 Week 5: Research Based Practices  Promoting Academic Achievement Among English Learners: A Guide to the Research presents a synthesis of the research on what works for English Learners. Topics such as the role of home language, literacy instruction in a second language, promoting English oral development, academic instruction in a second language, and social, cultural, and family influences are presented. Additionally the work provides insight on the role of schools and districts in creating focus and coherence in order to create positive learning environments for EL students.  Recommendations for schools and districts are provided: 1. School and District decision makers are informed about current research on ELs and can influence student success. 2. Create explicitly articulated academic goals for students. Presented in a clear manner so all personnel is aware, embed these goals into the curriculum. 3. Support coherence amongst schools, grades, and classrooms regarding selection, sequencing, and delivery of instruction. Adrian

9 Week 5: Research Based Practices 4. Use ongoing, uniform, and systematic assessments that provide timely information for teachers and measure success related to academic goals 5. Effective, engaged, leadership that emphasizes providing meaningful and challenging learning opportunities. 6. Provide ongoing professional development focused on helping teachers achieve student's learning goals. 7. Support professional development with routine and systematic collaboration among teachers focused on achieving specific learning goals. 8. Provide adequate resources to support the academic program. 9. Foster parent involvement and community outreach to support academic program. References: Goldenberg, C. & Coleman, R. Promoting Academic Achievement among English Learners: A Guide to the Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin

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