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Presentation on theme: "ASSESSMENT OF MENTAL RETARDATION AND GIFTEDNESS By: Jennifer Goshert and Courtney Boyle."— Presentation transcript:


2 Mental Retardation Giftedness

3 Mental Retardation  Definition according to the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities  “Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18”.

4 Characteristics of MR  IQ of 70 or below  A deficiency in 2 or more of the following adaptive skill areas:  Communication  Self-care  Home living  Social skills  Community use  Self-direction  Health and safety  Functional academics  Leisure  Work

5 Characteristics of MR  Levels:  Mild  Moderate  Severe  Profound  Cognitive deficits tend to affect memory, attention, and language  Individuals with severe MR tend to have brain damage which can cause physical disorders such as cerebral palsy and seizure disorders like epilepsy

6 Activity  Categorize in intensity the following scenarios.

7 Syndromes associated with Mental Retardation  Down Syndrome   Fetal Alcohol Syndrome  Fragile X Syndrome  Mucopolysoccharidoses (MPS)  Noonan Syndrome

8 Assessment of MR  Comprehensive patient and family history  Maternal health status during pregnancy  Baseline history of patient  Physical Examination  Focusing on: Dysmorphic features Minor abnormalities  Developmental screenings  The Revised Denver Prescreening Development Questionnaire  Denver Developmental Screening Test  Kansas Infant Development Screen  Adaptive Behavior Tests  IQ Tests

9 Adaptive Behavior Tests  Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB-R)  Can be given to 3 months-80 years  Multiple forms for children and visually impaired  Produces a service score  Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales  Can be given up to 18 years  Focuses on personal and social skills

10 Adaptive Behavior Tests  AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scale 2nd edition (AAMR ABS)  Two forms: school and residential/community settings  Unidimensional scales  Inventory for Client and Agency Planning (ICAP)  In addition to measuring adaptive behaviors this test also compiles a comprehensive set of information including demographic characteristics, diagnoses, support services needed and received, and social/leisure activities  Produces a service score  Is similar to SIB-R but shorter

11 Stanford-Binet  Given to individuals between 2 and 23 years of age  Tests intelligence across four areas: verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, abstract/visual reasoning, and short-term memory.  15 subtests- age depends number given and the level in which one starts  Takes around 45 to 90 minutes

12 Wechsler Intelligence Scales  Three different scales used: Adult, Children (WISC), Preschool  WISC is given to children 6 to 16 years of age  Divided into 2 main sections- Verbal and Nonverbal  Takes around 60 to 90 minutes

13 IQ Test Scores for MR  Mild  IQ: 70-55/50  Moderate  IQ: 55/50-40/35  Severe  IQ: 40/35-25/20  Profound  IQ: below 25/20

14 Activity  Create something that represents what giftedness means to you.

15 Giftedness  Definition according to the National Association of Gifted Children  “Gifted individuals are those who demonstrate outstanding levels of aptitude or competence in one or more domains. Domains include any structured area of activity with its own symbol system and/or set of sensorimotor skills.”

16 Informal vs. Formal  Developmental Checklists (Compares children to peers)  Characteristics of Gifted Children Checklists  Example: /gifted/characteristics.h tm /gifted/characteristics.h tm  Assessed through IQ tests- tests only academic giftedness  IQ - Ratio between the mental age and the actual age  To calculate - Divide mental Age by actual age then multiply by 100  Also used to assess for cognitive delays - MR InformalFormal

17 Scoring for Stanford-Binet & Wechsler Intelligence Scales  Both are norm referenced tests  100 average on both, 130 well-above  Scoring done in each individual section, then as a whole

18 Giftedness is Controversial  What the true definition of giftedness?  Are there levels of giftedness?  Does giftedness guarantee success?  Which form of assessment for giftedness is most reliable in predicting future success?  Is everyone gifted?

19 Torrance Test of Creative Thinking  Tests CQ (Creative Quotient)  2 tests within TTCT-V (Verbal) & TTCT-F (Figural)  Verbal tests- 1st grade- adult, 40 minutes  Figural tests- K- adult, 30 minutes

20 Torrance Test of Creative Thinking  6 word based activities  Assesses mental fluency, flexibility, and originality  Format- participants are asked questions, to improve products, and just suppose  Norm-referenced  3 activities at 10 minutes each  Includes picture construction, and completion  Tests mental fluency, originality, elaboration, abstractness of titles, resistance to premature closure (norm referenced)  13 criterion referenced areas assessed as well TTCT-V (Verbal)TTCT- F (Figural)

21 Scoring and Administration of TTCT  Training sessions at the Torrance Center in Georgia  Not best artist on Figural but one with best ideas  Higher scores on Figural- conveyed a story, showed emotion, showed a different angle, showed sense of motion, displayed humor, and/or detail  Example of scoring- eativity-test.html eativity-test.html

22 Gardner's Multiple Intelligences  Everyone has strengths that IQ test may not measure  Defined intelligence as “the capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural settings”  His theory of multiple intelligences lists nine different intelligences:  Logical-mathematical  Linguistic  Bodily-kinesthetic  Musical  Spatial  Interpersonal  Intrapersonal  Naturalist  Existential  Explains giftedness in one particular area and not others

23 Sources  American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. (n.d.). Definition of Intellectual Disability. Retrieved March 15, 2011, from AAIDD:  College of Education at the University of Georgia. The Torrance Center Training Opportunities. Retrieved March 21, 2011 from COE of the University of Georgia:  Council for Exceptional Children. (n.d.). Mental Retardation. Retrieved March 14, 2011, from CEC: e=/TaggedPage/TaggedPageDisplay.cfm&TPLID=37&ContentID=5630 e=/TaggedPage/TaggedPageDisplay.cfm&TPLID=37&ContentID=5630  Daily, D. K., Ardinger, H. H., & Holmes, G. E. (2000, February 15). Identification and Evaluation of Mental Retardation. American Family Physician.  Hill, B. (2001, January 11). Adaptive Behavior. Retrieved March 15, 2011, from Assessment Psychology Online:

24 Sources  Intelligence tests. (2007). In World of Health. Gale. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.butler.edu4024/ic/suic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWin dow?displayGroupName=Reference&prodId=SUIC&action=2&catId=&documentId =GALE%7CCV2191500686&userGroupName=butleru&jsid=b815fdfeaf97abda 5b425853e993333b. http://ezproxy.butler.edu4024/ic/suic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWin dow?displayGroupName=Reference&prodId=SUIC&action=2&catId=&documentId =GALE%7CCV2191500686&userGroupName=butleru&jsid=b815fdfeaf97abda 5b425853e993333b  Mensa International. (2011). About Mensa International. Retrieved from  Mental Retardation. (2002). In Encyclopedia of the Human Brain. Retrieved from  National Association for Gifted Children. (2008). Informal Assessment and Checklists. Retrieved from  National Association for Gifted Children. (2008). IQ Tests and Your Child. Retrieved from

25 Sources  National Association for Gifted Children. (2008). What is Giftedness?. Retrieved from  Newsweek. How Creative are You?. Retrieved March 21, 2011, from Newsweek:  Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. (2007). In Encyclopedia of Special Education: A Reference for the Education of the Handicapped and Other Exceptional Children and Adults. Retrieved from  Sadker, D. M., Sadker, M. P., & Zittleman, K. R. (2008). Multiple Intelligences. In Teachers, Schools, and Society (pp. 44-46). New York: McGraw-Hill.

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