Mental Retardation Definition according to the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities “Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18”.
Characteristics of MR IQ of 70 or below A deficiency in 2 or more of the following adaptive skill areas: Communication Self-care Home living Social skills Community use Self-direction Health and safety Functional academics Leisure Work
Characteristics of MR Levels: Mild Moderate Severe Profound Cognitive deficits tend to affect memory, attention, and language Individuals with severe MR tend to have brain damage which can cause physical disorders such as cerebral palsy and seizure disorders like epilepsy
Activity Categorize in intensity the following scenarios.
Syndromes associated with Mental Retardation Down Syndrome http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-_-P4t2jR1g http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-_-P4t2jR1g Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fragile X Syndrome Mucopolysoccharidoses (MPS) Noonan Syndrome
Assessment of MR Comprehensive patient and family history Maternal health status during pregnancy Baseline history of patient Physical Examination Focusing on: Dysmorphic features Minor abnormalities Developmental screenings The Revised Denver Prescreening Development Questionnaire Denver Developmental Screening Test Kansas Infant Development Screen Adaptive Behavior Tests IQ Tests
Adaptive Behavior Tests Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB-R) Can be given to 3 months-80 years Multiple forms for children and visually impaired Produces a service score Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Can be given up to 18 years Focuses on personal and social skills
Adaptive Behavior Tests AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scale 2nd edition (AAMR ABS) Two forms: school and residential/community settings Unidimensional scales Inventory for Client and Agency Planning (ICAP) In addition to measuring adaptive behaviors this test also compiles a comprehensive set of information including demographic characteristics, diagnoses, support services needed and received, and social/leisure activities Produces a service score Is similar to SIB-R but shorter
Stanford-Binet Given to individuals between 2 and 23 years of age Tests intelligence across four areas: verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, abstract/visual reasoning, and short-term memory. 15 subtests- age depends number given and the level in which one starts Takes around 45 to 90 minutes
Wechsler Intelligence Scales Three different scales used: Adult, Children (WISC), Preschool WISC is given to children 6 to 16 years of age Divided into 2 main sections- Verbal and Nonverbal Takes around 60 to 90 minutes
IQ Test Scores for MR Mild IQ: 70-55/50 Moderate IQ: 55/50-40/35 Severe IQ: 40/35-25/20 Profound IQ: below 25/20
Activity Create something that represents what giftedness means to you.
Giftedness Definition according to the National Association of Gifted Children “Gifted individuals are those who demonstrate outstanding levels of aptitude or competence in one or more domains. Domains include any structured area of activity with its own symbol system and/or set of sensorimotor skills.”
Informal vs. Formal Developmental Checklists (Compares children to peers) Characteristics of Gifted Children Checklists Example: http://www.austega.com /gifted/characteristics.h tm http://www.austega.com /gifted/characteristics.h tm Assessed through IQ tests- tests only academic giftedness IQ - Ratio between the mental age and the actual age To calculate - Divide mental Age by actual age then multiply by 100 Also used to assess for cognitive delays - MR InformalFormal
Scoring for Stanford-Binet & Wechsler Intelligence Scales Both are norm referenced tests 100 average on both, 130 well-above Scoring done in each individual section, then as a whole
Giftedness is Controversial What the true definition of giftedness? Are there levels of giftedness? Does giftedness guarantee success? Which form of assessment for giftedness is most reliable in predicting future success? Is everyone gifted?
Torrance Test of Creative Thinking 6 word based activities Assesses mental fluency, flexibility, and originality Format- participants are asked questions, to improve products, and just suppose Norm-referenced 3 activities at 10 minutes each Includes picture construction, and completion Tests mental fluency, originality, elaboration, abstractness of titles, resistance to premature closure (norm referenced) 13 criterion referenced areas assessed as well TTCT-V (Verbal)TTCT- F (Figural)
Scoring and Administration of TTCT Training sessions at the Torrance Center in Georgia Not best artist on Figural but one with best ideas Higher scores on Figural- conveyed a story, showed emotion, showed a different angle, showed sense of motion, displayed humor, and/or detail Example of scoring- http://www.newsweek.com/photo/2010/07/10/cr eativity-test.html http://www.newsweek.com/photo/2010/07/10/cr eativity-test.html
Gardner's Multiple Intelligences Everyone has strengths that IQ test may not measure Defined intelligence as “the capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural settings” His theory of multiple intelligences lists nine different intelligences: Logical-mathematical Linguistic Bodily-kinesthetic Musical Spatial Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist Existential Explains giftedness in one particular area and not others
Sources American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. (n.d.). Definition of Intellectual Disability. Retrieved March 15, 2011, from AAIDD: http://www.aaidd.org/content_100.cfm?navID=21 http://www.aaidd.org/content_100.cfm?navID=21 College of Education at the University of Georgia. The Torrance Center Training Opportunities. Retrieved March 21, 2011 from COE of the University of Georgia: http://www.coe.uga.edu/torrance/training-opportunities/ http://www.coe.uga.edu/torrance/training-opportunities/ Council for Exceptional Children. (n.d.). Mental Retardation. Retrieved March 14, 2011, from CEC: http://www.cec.sped.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Mental_Retardation&Templat e=/TaggedPage/TaggedPageDisplay.cfm&TPLID=37&ContentID=5630 http://www.cec.sped.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Mental_Retardation&Templat e=/TaggedPage/TaggedPageDisplay.cfm&TPLID=37&ContentID=5630 Daily, D. K., Ardinger, H. H., & Holmes, G. E. (2000, February 15). Identification and Evaluation of Mental Retardation. American Family Physician. Hill, B. (2001, January 11). Adaptive Behavior. Retrieved March 15, 2011, from Assessment Psychology Online: http://www.assessmentpsychology.com/adaptivebehavior.htm http://www.assessmentpsychology.com/adaptivebehavior.htm
Sources Intelligence tests. (2007). In World of Health. Gale. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.butler.edu4024/ic/suic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWin dow?displayGroupName=Reference&prodId=SUIC&action=2&catId=&documentId =GALE%7CCV2191500686&userGroupName=butleru&jsid=b815fdfeaf97abda 5b425853e993333b. http://ezproxy.butler.edu4024/ic/suic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWin dow?displayGroupName=Reference&prodId=SUIC&action=2&catId=&documentId =GALE%7CCV2191500686&userGroupName=butleru&jsid=b815fdfeaf97abda 5b425853e993333b Mensa International. (2011). About Mensa International. Retrieved from http://www.mensa.org/about-us http://www.mensa.org/about-us Mental Retardation. (2002). In Encyclopedia of the Human Brain. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/esthumanbrain/mental_retardation http://www.credoreference.com/entry/esthumanbrain/mental_retardation National Association for Gifted Children. (2008). Informal Assessment and Checklists. Retrieved from http://www.nagc.org/index.aspx?id=958http://www.nagc.org/index.aspx?id=958 National Association for Gifted Children. (2008). IQ Tests and Your Child. Retrieved from http://www.nagc.org/index.aspx?id=960http://www.nagc.org/index.aspx?id=960
Sources National Association for Gifted Children. (2008). What is Giftedness?. Retrieved from http://www.nagc.org/index.aspx?id=574http://www.nagc.org/index.aspx?id=574 Newsweek. How Creative are You?. Retrieved March 21, 2011, from Newsweek: http://www.newsweek.com/photo/2010/07/10/creativity-test.html http://www.newsweek.com/photo/2010/07/10/creativity-test.html Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. (2007). In Encyclopedia of Special Education: A Reference for the Education of the Handicapped and Other Exceptional Children and Adults. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/wileyse/torrance_tests_of_creative_thinking http://www.credoreference.com/entry/wileyse/torrance_tests_of_creative_thinking Sadker, D. M., Sadker, M. P., & Zittleman, K. R. (2008). Multiple Intelligences. In Teachers, Schools, and Society (pp. 44-46). New York: McGraw-Hill.