Presentation on theme: "Professionals in Health Critical Thinking and Problem Solving."— Presentation transcript:
Professionals in Health Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
Problem There are four large boxes Inside each large box is a medium box Inside each medium box are two smaller boxes Inside each small box there are four tiny boxes How many boxes are there all together?
Types of Thinking DEDUCTIVE REASONING a form of logical thinking in which a conclusion is reached based on true facts called premises.
Example of Deductive Reasoning Premise: patients with advanced lung disease will experience shortness of breath on exertion. Premise: Bob has advanced lung disease and is trying to help his daughter move. Conclusion: Bob will experience shortness of breath with helping his daughter move. The conclusion in deductive reasoning is always true if the premises are true.
Types of thinking INDUCTIVE REASONING a form of logical reasoning where a best guess is made based on the premises or facts.
Example of Inductive reasoning Observation: person to person blood transfusions were most often successful when the donor was a family member or close relative Hypothesis: the blood of family members is closer in structure to that of non-family members and so doesn’t cause the problems with clotting. Proven theory: scientists discovered blood groups and since this is hereditary the hypothesis is proven true and becomes a theory The conclusion has a high probability of being true, but is not always true.
Critical Thinking Many Definitions The ability to suspend judgment The ability to consider alternatives The ability to analyze and evaluate Purposeful, goal-directed thinking All the definitions include the ability to develop a hypothesis, to test and rate possible solutions and to maintain an objective viewpoint.
Critical Thinking “Whether you think you can or think you can’t - you are probably right.” Henry Ford Critical thinking can be developed and improved with practice.
Creative Thinking The generation of ideas that results in the improvement of the efficiency or the effectiveness of the system
Vertical Thinking Relies on logic and each idea relates to the next. Allows assumptions to be made based on past experiences and relies on logical thinking. Includes deductive and inductive reasoning
Lateral Thinking Creates new ideas by making connections with no set pathway Takes stored information and relates it in a previously unrelated manner
Directed Thinking Highly controlled Conscious effort is made to solve a specific problem or situation. Examples are learning, reasoning and decision making.
Undirected Thinking Loose and free flowing without an apparent goal. Examples include dreaming and day dreaming.
Strategies for Thinking Critically Define the problem to be resolved. Identify the issues involved in clear terms. Form a tentative hypothesis. Look for reasonable explanations of characteristics, behavior and events. Examine all the evidence available. Be wary of people’s self reports as valid evidence. Analyze assumptions. Examine what is meant by concepts used in discussion.
Strategies continued Avoid oversimplification. Look beyond the obvious. Be careful about drawing conclusions. Wait for more evidence when conflict in data. Consider alternative interpretations. Recognize the implications of research. Look for ways to apply your knowledge.
Assessing Your Thinking To continually improve your own thinking it is essential that you continually ask yourself questions.
Questions What am I trying to accomplish? How can I determine if I am accomplishing it? What question am I trying to answer? What information do I need? Do I need to look at my subject from more than one point of view? Am I making assumptions?
Questions continued Where is my reasoning going? What concepts or ideas are prominent in my thinking? How clear and precise is my use of words? Am I addressing the question or issue at a superficial or deep level?
Profile of a Critical Thinker Reasons their way through to a position by considering evidence available Knows that objections are likely to be raised to a position, and knows how to examine positions.
Profile continued Does not allow anecdotal evidence to carry undue weight in reflections. Realizes the effect that emotions, feelings and prejudices may have on thinking. Is willing to revise a position in light of the reasoning of others and of contrary evidence.
Profile continued Is sensitized to demands of clarity and is able to detect objectionable vagueness in own thinking and in the thinking of others. Remains unimpressed by the sheer force of someone’s rhetoric and conviction when these masquerade as substitutes for reasoning.
Profile continued Stops to think before arriving at a judgement. Thinks, judges and acts mindful of the limitations of time and information imposed by the situation.
Decision Making/Problem Solving Process Five steps are involved in the decision making/problem solving process
Decision Making/Problem Solving Process Define the Opportunity for Positive Change Looking at the decision or problem as an opportunity is the foundation of beginning a great solution. Increases the chances for proactive thinking. Get all facts and data before going on to the next step. Discern what is fact and what is not.
Decision Making/Problem Solving Process Generate Ideas Concerning the Opportunity Use creative thinking techniques: –Associative thinking and visualization –Brainstorming –Make analogies
Decision Making/Problem Solving Process Evaluate Ideas and Select the Best One. Use analytical thinking to evaluate each idea Weigh the pros and cons of all options
Decision Making/Problem Solving Process Implement the Chosen Strategy Put the idea into action.
Decision Making/Problem Solving Process Evaluate and Modify Accordingly Does the solution have a desirable effect? If not, rethink all possible solutions. Get feedback from others. Modify strategies.