Presentation on theme: "Understanding Dyslexia:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Understanding Dyslexia: What Parents Can DoThe purpose of this presentation is to provide information that may be used as part of a parent education program as defined in The Dyslexia Handbook, page 25 (h).This presentation includes: awareness of characteristics of dyslexia and related disorders, information on effective strategies for teaching dyslexic students, and ideas for how parents can help their student with dyslexia.
2 Which of these famous people is dyslexic? Whoopi GoldbergCherAllow think time. Listen to participant responses. It will not take long for most to realize that all of these famous people are known to be dyslexic.Walt DisneyJay Leno
3 The TEA resources used in this presentation are available at the TEA website.A picture of the handbook and the web site can be found on the last page of the handout.
4 Definition of Dyslexia Texas Education Code 38.003 Dyslexia meansa disorder of constitutional originmanifested by a difficulty in learning to read, write, or spell,despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and sociocultural opportunity.This is the state definition of dyslexia. “Constitutional origin” means that the individual is born with it. Dyslexia is a disability that impairs reading, writing, and spelling, all “print-based” skills. Again we have the exclusionary criteria which are NOT dyslexia.We must be very careful with English language learners. They may have some of the same reading characteristics and require some of the same types of instruction. However, the root of the characteristics is quite different.Since dyslexia is known to exist in all languages, an English language learner with dyslexia will have the characteristics in both their first and second languages.
5 Characteristics of Dyslexia difficulty with the development of phonological awareness, including segmenting, blending, and manipulating sounds in wordsTypeDescriptionPhonemic Awareness/s/ /a/ /t/ /b/ /a/ /t//b/ /u/ /t/ /b/ /u/ /n/Onsets and Rimes/t/ /oy/ /d/ /oll//m/ /an/ /c/ /at/Syllablescow boy sing ing hap pi nessThis is the Texas Phonological Awareness Continuum. It was introduced in the Kindergarten and First Grade Teacher Reading Academies.Review the components of Phonemic Awareness. Use the examples in the Description to illustrate how teachers work with the students at each level of the continuum.Be sure that participants understand that phonological awareness is only oral language. There is no print involved yet. Point to the ear at the top of the slide. This indicates that these skills involve listening and speaking.
6 Characteristics of Dyslexia may havedifficulty with the development of phonological awareness, including segmenting, blending, and manipulating sounds in words;difficulty with phonological memory (holding information about sounds and words in memory).We have already done the first bullet, so begin explaining the second bullet on this slide.difficulty with phonological memory (holding information about sounds and words in memory): The reader has to be able to temporarily store bits of verbal information in memory. Spoken words and numbers are both stored in memory as phonemes (sounds). This type of memory plays an important role in reading at every level. As the reader decodes, the sounds have to be held in memory until the whole word is decoded. Then the word must be held in memory as the remaining words in the sentence are decoded and meaning is made of the entire sentence.
7 Characteristics of Dyslexia continued may havedifficulty with rapid naming of familiar objects, colors, or letters of the alphabetdifficulty learning the names of letters and their associated soundsdifficulty with rapid naming of familiar objects, colors, or letters of the alphabet: This is another aspect of phonological processing that relates to phonological memory. The reader has to be able to easily and rapidly retrieve verbal (phonetic) information held in long-term storage. Rapid naming implies both accuracy and speed.difficulty learning the names of letters and their associated sounds: Children should be able to recite the alphabet from a to z without singing the song. They should be able to tell what letter follows another without having to recite the whole alphabet up to that letter. Almost all learners know the initial sounds and what letters represent those sounds. The difficulty arises when the learner comes to a vowel and does not have the decoding skills to pronounce the vowel. This impairs the reading and blending of any other sounds in the word. This is a strong characteristic of dyslexia.
8 Characteristics of Dyslexia continued may havedifficulty reading real words in isolationdifficulty accurately decoding nonsense wordsslow, inaccurate, and labored oral reading; (lack of reading fluency)difficulty reading real words in isolation: Reading real words in isolation is more difficult than reading words in a passage because there is no supporting text to aid in the decoding of the word. To identify learners at risk for dyslexia we often test them on lists of words in isolation. We assess their ability to decode the words and the speed with which they decode the words.difficulty accurately decoding nonsense words: Decoding nonsense words is more difficult than real words because they have no meaning. On some assessments the reader is assessed on a decodable real word in one subtest, then a nonsense word with similar decodable sounds in another subtest, i.e., mud - gud ; babble – pabble.If the student can decode the real word and the nonsense word, then he or she is using decoding skills for those sounds.slow, inaccurate, and labored oral reading; (lack of reading fluency): If a student is having difficulty with decoding words, reading in context is generally impaired also and reading is word by word, very slow and labored, with many errors. Assessed fluency rates (WCPM – words correct per minute) will be very low. A student who has to read word by word while struggling to decode one word at a time will naturally lack fluency.
9 Characteristics of Dyslexia continued may havevariable difficulty with aspects of reading comprehensionvariable difficulty with aspects of written compositiondifficulty in learning to spellvariable difficulty with aspects of reading comprehension: When reading fluency is impaired, comprehension usually suffers. However, some dyslexic children with reading difficulties have been shown to compensate or find other ways to comprehend what is on the page. They are more likely to use illustrations, captions, titles and subtitles, and key words to find and retain information.variable difficulty with aspects of written composition: When students with dyslexia are asked to write a composition a number of factors may impair the process. Many of these students have difficulty with the skill of handwriting. Many have severe problems with spelling. As a result they will only compose with words they can spell and this usually makes their compositions appear immature or superficial. Some of these students have difficulty with the organization skills necessary for the development of a focused piece of writing.difficulty in learning to spell: This is the most difficult skill for students with dyslexia. If the reader cannot decode words from the page, then encoding or generating words to print on the page is much more difficult. Often the spelling of a learner with dyslexia is phonetic, or written only with the consonants the student hears in the word. Again the vowels are a real problem for encoding as well as decoding.
10 Graphophonemic Knowledge Sound to SymbolCorrespondenceDecodingEncodingThis illustrates the two process of decoding and encoding which result in reading and spelling (and writing). Encoding is the more difficult process for a student with dyslexia.ReadingSpellingRegion One ESC 2008
11 Characteristics of Dyslexia continued a limited amount of time spent in reading activitiesA result of all of these difficulties with reading is that these students do not like to read. They spend less time reading than effective readers.
12 Characteristics of Dyslexia continued If these students spend less time reading, what are the implications?What impact does this have on these students and their performance in school?
13 Time Spent Reading Each Day 1.8 million words per yearReading Test Scores (percentiles)105090100282,000 words per yearThis figure is found in the book, Overcoming Dyslexia by Dr. Sally Shaywitz and illustrates the consequences of poor reading.Figure 29 shows that “the very best readers, those who scored better than 90 percent of their peers on reading tests, read for more than 20 minutes a day (about 1.8 million words a year), while those at the 50th percentile read only 4.6 minutes a day (282,000 words yearly). The poorest readers, those children reading below the tenth percentile, read less than one minute each day (a meager 8,000 words a year), and would require one year to read what the best readers read in two days.”8000 words per year<1 min4.6 min20 minTime Spent Reading Each Day (not in school)Good readers spend more time reading each day so they read many more words in a year compared to poor readers.Figure 29 in “Overcoming Dyslexia”, Sally Shaywitz, 2003
14 This cartoon is found in the book titled In Search of Perspective cartoons by Jean Watts, Ohio Psychology Press, 1989 (out of press).
15 Common Signs of Dyslexia: Pre-school:May talk later than most children;May have difficulty with rhyming;May have difficulty pronouncing words (i.e., busgetti for spaghetti, mawn lower for lawn mower);May have poor auditory memory for nursery rhymes and chants;May be slow to add new vocabulary words;May be unable to recall the right word;May have trouble learning numbers, days of the week, colors, shapes, and how to spell and write his or her name.Common Signs of Dyslexia: Pre-schoolThis list is in the handout on page 1.From the Dyslexia Handbook, page 2. Note the sentence that precedes the lists:The following signs may be associated with dyslexia if they are unexpected for the individual’s age, educational level, or cognitive abilities.Review the characteristics with participants.From The Dyslexia Handbook – Revised 2007Region One ESC 2009
16 Common Signs of Dyslexia: Kindergarten through third grade:Fails to understand that words come apart; for example, that snowman can be pulled apart into snow and man and, later on, that the word man can be broken down still further and sounded out as: /m/ /ă/ /n/;Has difficulty learning the letter names and their corresponding sounds;Has difficulty decoding single words (reading single words in isolation)—lacks a strategy;Has difficulty spelling phonetically;Reads dysfluently (choppy and labored);Relies on context to recognize a word.Common Signs of Dyslexia: Kindergarten through third gradeThis list is in the handout on page 2.From the Dyslexia Handbook, page 2. Note the sentence that precedes the lists:The following signs may be associated with dyslexia if they are unexpected for the individual’s age, educational level, or cognitive abilities.Review the characteristics with participants.From The Dyslexia Handbook – Revised 2007Region One ESC 2009
17 Common Signs of Dyslexia: Fourth grade through high school:Has a history of reading and spelling difficulties;Avoids reading aloud;Reads most materials slowly; oral reading is labored, not fluent;Avoids reading for pleasure;May have an inadequate vocabulary;Has difficulty spelling; may resort to using less complicated words in writing that are easier to spell.Common Signs of Dyslexia: Fourth grade through high schoolThis list is in the handout on page 2.From the Dyslexia Handbook, page 2. Note the sentence that precedes the lists:The following signs may be associated with dyslexia if they are unexpected for the individual’s age, educational level, or cognitive abilities.Review the characteristics with participants.From The Dyslexia Handbook – Revised 2007Region One ESC 2009
18 Prevalence 5%-17% of school-aged children have dyslexia. Dyslexia is the most common learning disability.NOTE: In addition, research has established that there is a high comorbidity (coexistence, co-occurence) between dyslexia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ranging from 15% to 50%.From Overcoming Dyslexia, Sally Shaywitz, M.D., 2003
19 Prevalence Dyslexia occurs with equal frequency in boys and girls. NOTE: In addition, research has established that there is a high comorbidity (coexistence, co-occurence) between dyslexia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ranging from 15% to 50%.Dyslexia occurs with equal frequency in boys and girls.From Overcoming Dyslexia, Sally Shaywitz, M.D., 2003
20 PrevalenceChildren who have a parent who is dyslexic have a 23% to 65% chance of also being dyslexic.NOTE: In addition, research has established that there is a high comorbidity (coexistence, co-occurence) between dyslexia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ranging from 15% to 50%.From Overcoming Dyslexia, Sally Shaywitz, M.D., 2003
21 “unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities….” ability to learn orally in classable to learn and express meanings of wordsunderstanding of math word problemshigh scores on group administered ability testsThe IDA (International Dyslexia Association) definition also says that these difficulties are “unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities”.So what are these “abilities”? These points come from the book Overcoming Dyslexia by Dr. Sally Shaywitz. Review the points with the participants. Teachers who have worked with these students will recognize these strengths.From Overcoming Dyslexia, Sally Shaywitz, M.D., 2003Region One ESC 2009
22 Going from Text to Meaning DecodingGeneral IntelligenceVocabularyWord IdentificationReasoningConcept FormationMeaningFrom Overcoming Dyslexia by Dr. Sally Shaywitz, Figure 9. Going From Text to Meaning“A phonologic weakness blocks decoding, which in turn interferes with word identification. This prevents a dyslexic reader from applying his higher-level skills to get at a word’s meaning. But even if he can’t identify the word specifically, he can apply these higher-level skills to the context around the unknown word to guess at its meaning.”From Overcoming Dyslexia, Sally Shaywitz, M.D., 2003Region One ESC 2009
23 Sea of Strength Model Decoding Concept Formation Reasoning ComprehensionGeneral KnowledgeProblem SolvingVocabularyCritical ThinkingFrom Overcoming Dyslexia by Dr. Sally Shaywitz, Figure 11. Sea of Strength Model of Dyslexia“In dyslexia an encapsulated weakness in decoding is surrounded by many strengths.”The Dyslexia Program is designed to work on the decoding weakness. Parents and teachers can help the student develop their many strengths.From Overcoming Dyslexia, Sally Shaywitz, M.D., 2003Region One ESC 2009
24 Components of Instruction phonemic awarenessgraphophonemic knowledgelanguage structures (word study)linguistic instruction directed toward fluencystrategies for decoding, encoding, word recognition, fluency, and comprehensionIn Section IV. Instruction for Students with Dyslexia, the components of dyslexia instruction are described on page 12. Again review each of these referencing the characteristics of dyslexia and how these components address the specific characteristics.NOTE: These are the components that must be included in the dyslexia approach selected by a district. The state does not require a specific program; it does require that whatever program a district selects must contain these components and the instructional approaches on the next slide.
25 Instructional Approaches Explicit, directSystematicCumulativeMultisensoryInstructional approaches are described on pages of the Dyslexia Manual.The categories on this slide and more condensed. Describe each:explicit, direct – Dyslexia instruction must be done in small groups (typically 3 to 5 students) and delivered directly/explicitly. This allows the teacher to target the individual learning needs of each student. It also allows immediate feedback and redirection.systematic – The dyslexia methods must be delivered systematically. Teachers must use the same strategies, repeat and practice the skills with students until mastery is achieved.cumulative – The dyslexia program approach must be organized so that skills build one upon another and the student is motivated to achieve mastery in each skill, then apply it in a meaningful way.multisensory – Students need instruction that incorporates the simultaneous use of two or more sensory pathways (auditory, visual, kinesthetic, tactile). See next slide.Region One ESC 2009
26 Multisensory Instruction Engaging two or more pathways in the brain simultaneously in order to enhance memory and learning.VisualAuditoryMultisensory instruction incorporates the simultaneous use of two or more sensory pathways (auditory, visual, kinesthetic, tactile).Share with participants that this multisensory reading instruction does not necessarily require unusual strategies for most students with dyslexia (such as writing on sand paper or in shaving cream). Rather this means that students simultaneously listen, look, say and write.Tactile-KinestheticAdapted from Anna Gillingham and Bessie W. Stillman , 1999Region One ESC 2009
27 Parents can help their child with readingwritingspellingorganizing homeworkfun and gamesencouragementIn this part of the presentation we will explore a variety of ways parents can help their student with dyslexia. As we look at these ideas, parents should think about which ideas would be best for their child.These ideas are all listed in the handout on pages 3-6.
28 Helping Your Child with Reading For most students with dyslexia, listening comprehension is a strength and the way they do most of their learning. When good readers read, they learn new vocabulary. Reading aloud to your child and pointing out key vocabulary will help your child comprehend and learn new words.Read aloud to your child.While reading aloud, stop at key vocabulary words. Ask your child to fill in the missing word.
29 Helping Your Child with Reading If your child stumbles on a word, give the word and move on. Do not ask your child to sound it out.Choral read together.Ask your child to reread.Take turns reading.These are all good ways to help your child enjoy reading and understand the ideas in the text. The Dyslexia Program at school is the place to work on sounding out words and building decoding skills.
30 Helping Your Child with Reading Ask questions about the setting, the characters, the problems in the story, the actions of the characters, and the outcome.Encourage your child to predict what will happen next in the story.During reading stop occasionally to find out if the child is understanding the story. After the story talk about the story, what happened and how it all ended.
31 Helping Your Child with Reading Have your child retell the story.Ask your child what new words were learned by reading the story.Focus on helping your child remember new words from the reading. Oral language is very important to reading, so encourage your child to talk about the story or the text you have read together.
32 Helping Your Child with Writing Break writing tasks into stages. Use a step-by-step approach.Have your child dictate to you. Your child can copy it later.For many students with dyslexia spelling and handwriting are very difficult skills. You can help your child by breaking these “chores” down into smaller steps which are easier to accomplish. You can help your child write stories and compositions simply by taking dictation as the child tells what they want to write.
33 Helping Your Child with Writing Tell your child not to erase. Instead, draw a neat, single line through any errorUse wide-lined paper.Write on every other line.Handwriting and spelling are also very difficult for these students. They want to do their work well, but make many mistakes. You can help the student focus on the content of their work rather than how perfect the paper looks. You can work with the teacher to allow the student to turn in a “draft” of the work, then allow extra time to recopy or type and produce a final copy.
34 Helping Your Child with Completing Homework Set a time and a place for homework.Decide which parent should help with different subjects.If necessary, read textbook information to your child.There should be a place at home where your child can work or read (20 minutes a day!) without distractions. Organizing papers as well as time is often a problem for students with dyslexia. Your student may need help with keeping papers and notebooks organized in this work space. It is best to have a daily scheduled time for homework or reading.Parents and even older siblings can help this student with homework. Based on family member strengths, decide who might work best as a math and science tutor, or read social studies, or practice spelling with the student.Be sure that the student get breaks between work periods and some “me” time each day. If there is so much homework that these recommendations cannot work, talk to your child’s teacher(s) or ask for a 504 committee meeting to discuss more appropriate accommodations.
35 Helping Your Child with Completing Homework Encourage questions and discussion.Review new vocabulary.Always use the student’s strengths of listening comprehension and oral language to reinforce learning and build vocabulary.
36 Helping Your Child with Organizing Homework Provide a homework notebook or daily assignment sheet.Set up a process for filing and turning in completed homework.Even college students with dyslexia report that learning how to organize and track their assignments and projects is a challenge. Parents can help their child learn these organization skills early and with support from school. Hopefully by the time they get to college this will not be such a difficult task.
37 Helping Your Child with Organizing Homework Request weekly progress reports from the teacher or school counselor.Most schools will allow the accommodation of an extra set of text books that can be kept at home. The family member working with the student can pre-read and prepare using this set of books. If there is a lot of chapter reading in text books, the text can be read aloud and recorded.Often these children do their homework but forget to turn it in. Setting up routines for this will also help the student learn organizational skills.Request a second set of textbooks to be used at home.
38 Helping Your Child using Fun and Games Read riddle and joke books together.Read comic books.Have your child write signs around the house.Have your child send greeting cards to relatives.Because these students are bright, many of them enjoy jokes, riddles, and playing with language. Find ways around the house using oral and written language to reinforce your child’s delight in these types of communication.
39 Helping Your Child using Fun and Games Create an “All About Me” scrapbook. Paste one photo or memory per page and ask your child to write about it.Parents can help their student focus on strengths by documenting the many great things they do. Pictures can be mounted in the book and used to “talk about” experiences and accomplishments.Be sure to occasionally take time to read and reread this wonderful memory book “All About Me”.
40 Encouraging Your Child Focus on your child’s abilities and talents.Agree on regular routines at home.Encourage originality and creativity.Whatever your child is good at, sports, art activities, piano- make sure they have time for their own strengths. Who knows, this might lead to a highly successful career!
41 Encouraging Your Child Maintain high expectations.We know that dyslexia is not a disability that should hold back your student. Tell your child that this reading difficulty has nothing to do with intelligence. Like the successful people at the beginning of this presentation, your child holds that same possibility.
42 Encouraging Your Child Praise your child for effort.Pat yourself on the back!Provide plenty of praise for your child’s hard work and accomplishments.Finally, give yourself a big pat on the back for your support, hard work, and accomplishments with your child. Together you will succeed.
43 "Kites rise highest against the wind - not with it." Sir Winston ChurchillThese children are not looking for an easy way out-they’re looking for a different way in.