Presentation on theme: "Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs. Who is Maslow? Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) Psychologist Wrote “A Theory of Human Motivation” (1943) Wrote “Motivation."— Presentation transcript:
Who is Maslow? Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) Psychologist Wrote “A Theory of Human Motivation” (1943) Wrote “Motivation and Personality” (1954) Born in Brooklyn, New York
Maslow studied what he called exemplary people such as Albert Einstein, Jane Addams, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Frederick Douglass rather than mentally ill or neurotic people. He believed that the study of stunted, immature, and unhealthy specimens could yield only a stunted psychology/philosophy. Maslow also studied the healthiest 1% of the college student population. mentally illneuroticmentally illneurotic
Maslow’s Theory Everybody has a set of needs that need to be gratified. The journey starts with the most basic needs, known as physiological needs. Once the needs on one level have been gratified, people can move on to the next level of needs. After gratification of the bottom 4 levels, the individual may achieve self- actualization.
Physiological needs The physiological needs are those which a person needs to survive in daily life. They are innate needs that humans unconsciously strive to fulfill. Food Water Shelter Sleep There are many people that may never get past this level. They remain dominated by the need to fulfill their physiological needs.
Safety needs Ideally, in our culture, safety is usually not an issue for infants and adolescents because we are protected by parents. But as we move on in life, things are constantly changing and the defenses that we knew as a child are no longer there. “Safety needs” is the stage where we strive to fulfill things such as: Security Dependency Protection Freedom from fears Need for structure Health and well being
Belonging/love/social needs Although now safe, the person who has reached this level of needs will feel alone, rejected, and friendless. The person at this level will seek to find: Friendships Intimacy (both physical and emotional) Sense of roots Affection from others Having supportive and communicative family interaction In rare occurrences, the need for love and belonging can transcend physiological and safety needs.
Esteem needs These needs can be classified according to two different areas. First comes the need for personal achievement, independence, and freedom. Second comes the desire for reputation and prestige, the concern with how others perceive you. If the needs at this level are met, it leads to an overall self- confidence, self- worth, the feeling of being useful and necessary. If these needs are not met, it can lead to inferiority, and helplessness. If Esteem needs are never met, it can lead to neurotic behavior.
Self actualization needs Even if all the other needs are met, some people may never reach the step of self- actualization. In order for a person to fulfill this need, they must be doing something they love. ie. a musician must make music… ie. a musician must make music… The specific form by which this need is met varies from person to person, as each individual has a unique desire.
Maslow Expanded Since Maslow developed his theory in 1943, many psychologists have attempted to use his theory to help explain their work. As a result, there have been modifications to Maslow’s work. Beyond the basic five levels of needs, we can now identify… Cognitive needs Aesthetic needs Self-transcendence
How Maslow is essential to understanding identity Every person comes from a different background and has a different inner life. It is important to understand where every individual is located in their struggle to ascend the pyramid. This will help us to understand why a person is in a ‘survival’ mode…. Perhaps he/she has not had breakfast this morning. Perhaps, due to her location, her ethnicity, or her colour, she is a victim of violence, bigotry, and discrimination. Understanding Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is one step towards becoming more tolerant and accepting of others.