Presentation on theme: "Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Development of Theory Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is a theory in psychology that Abraham Maslow proposed in his 1943 paper."— Presentation transcript:
Development of Theory Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is a theory in psychology that Abraham Maslow proposed in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation Maslow studied exemplary people rather than mentally ill or neurotic people
Representations Hierarchy most often depicted as a pyramid consisting of five levels –the four lower levels are grouped together as deficiency needs associated with physiological needs –while the top level is termed growth needs associated with psychological needs.
Deficiency Needs The first four layers of the pyramid are what Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "D-needs“ –the individual does not feel anything if they are met, but feels anxious if they are not met
Physiological Needs These are the basic animal needs for such things as food, warmth, shelter, sex, water, and other body needs. –If a person is hungry or thirsty or his body is chemically unbalanced, all of his energies turn toward remedying these deficiencies, and other needs remain inactive.
Safety Needs These needs have to do with man's yearning for a predictable, orderly world in which injustice and inconsistency are under control, the familiar frequent, and the unfamiliar rare.
Safety needs include: –Personal security from crime –Security against company lay-offs –Health and well-being –Safety net against accidents/illness and the adverse impacts
Love/Belonging/Social Needs This psychological aspect of Maslow's hierarchy involves emotionally-based relationships in general, such as: –friendship –sexual intimacy –having a supportive and communicative family
Esteem Needs All humans have a need to be respected, to have self- esteem, self-respect, and to respect others. People need to engage themselves to gain recognition and have an activity or activities that give the person a sense of contribution, to feel accepted and self-valued, be it in a profession or hobby. Imbalances at this level can result in low self-esteem, inferiority complexes
Growth Needs Though the deficiency needs may be seen as "basic", self-actualization and transcendence are "being" or "growth needs“ –also termed by Maslow as "B-needs"
Cognitive and Aesthetic Needs Cognitive needs is the expression of the natural human need to learn, explore, discover and create to get a better understanding of the world around them Maslow believed that humans need beautiful imagery or something new and aesthetically pleasing to continue up towards Self- Actualization.
Self-actualization Self-actualization is the instinctual need of humans to make the most of their abilities and to strive to be the best they can.
Maslow's need hierarchy is set forth as a general proposition and does not imply that everyone's needs follow the same rigid pattern. –This is misunderstood by many of Maslow’s critics In short, self-actualization is reaching one's fullest potential.
Characteristics of the Self-actualized They embrace the facts and realities of the world. They are spontaneous in their ideas and actions. They are creative. They are interested in solving problems. They feel a closeness to other people, and generally appreciate life. They have a system of morality that is fully internalized and independent of external authority. They have discernment and are able to view all things in an objective manner.
Criticisms of Maslow Why do higher needs often motivate people even when lower needs are unsatisfied? Sometimes people are simultaneously motivated by needs at different levels.
Maslow’s Response While order holds for most people, there are exceptions. – Martyrs – respect before love
100% satisfaction? Needs are only partially satisfied at any given moment Average American –Physiological = 85% –Safety = 70% –Belongingness/Love = 50% –Self-esteem = 40% –Self-actualization = 10%
Cultural Differences Maslow noted that the means of satisfying a needs may vary across cultures.