The social contexts of adolescence Families and parents.
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The social contexts of adolescence Families and parents
Parenting functions: v Provision of basic resources and caring for the home. v Protecting children and adolescents. v Guiding children’s development. v Advocating on behalf of children in the community.
Factors that support or undermine parents’ competence u Personal and psychological resources ue.g, emotional maturity; knowledge. u Characteristics of the adolescent ue.g., temperament; gender; age. u Contextual sources of stress and support ue.g., marital relationship; work.
How Parents Influence Their Children Modeling of behaviors Giving rewards and punishments Direct instruction (teaching) Stating rules for behavior Reasoning, discussing Providing materials resources
Parent-Adolescent Relationships Autonomy and Attachment The ability to attain autonomy and gain control over one’s behavior in adolescence is acquired through appropriate adult reactions to the adolescent’s desire for control.
Parent-adolescent conflict Conflict can be a positive factor in adolescent’s emotional development. Conflict can be adaptive Conflict can serve an informational function. Conflict can help adolescents develop autonomy.
Parent influences on identity development Interest in and involvement with their children; emotional intensity; degree and nature of family contact; parenting style.
G. Elder’s research: l High levels of parent-child interaction; l use of frequent explanations; l democratic or equalitarian parenting;
Parents’ involvement in education Parents tend to be less involved in their children’s education once they have moved onto secondary school.
Reasons: l Schools bigger and further from home l Curriculum is more diverse l Multiple teachers l Mothers more likely to be employed l Student autonomy
Parent functions l Monitor homework l Help students make post- secondary plans l Reward achievements and behavioral improvements l Attend school events and teacher conferences