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Mastery Teaching and Mastery Learning

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1 Mastery Teaching and Mastery Learning
A Model for Instructional Effectiveness

2 Mastery Learning Mastery learning suggests that the focus of instruction should be the time required for different students to learn the same material. This contrasts with the classic model (based upon theories of intelligence) in which all students are given the same amount of time to learn and the focus is on differences in ability. Indeed, Carroll (1989) argues that aptitude is primarily a measure of time required to learn.

3 Radical Shift The idea of mastery learning amounts to a radical shift in responsibility for teachers; the blame for a student's failure rests with the instruction not a lack of ability on the part of the student. In a mastery learning environment, the challenge becomes providing enough time and employing instructional strategies so that all students can achieve the same level of learning (Levine, 1985; Bloom, 1981).

4 Key Elements The key elements in mastery learning are:
clearly specifying what is to be learned and how it will be evaluated, allowing students to learn at their own pace, assessing student progress and providing appropriate feedback or remediation, and testing that final learning criterion has been achieved.

5 Planning Objectives Before the lesson is prepared, the teacher should have a clear idea of what the teaching objectives are. What, specifically, should the student be able to do, understand, care about as a result of the teaching.

6 TEKS and Performance Standards
State Standards and Performance Standards The teacher needs to know what standards of performance are to be expected and when pupils will be held accountable for what is expected. The pupils should be informed about the standards of performance--what knowledge or skills are to be demonstrated and in what manner.

7 Mastery Teaching Model
Madeline Hunter Eight Steps for Instruction

8 Steps 1, 2, and 3 Getting students set to learn Step 1: Review -- Typically at the beginning of the lesson, review previous material that is relevant to this lesson. Step 2: Anticipatory Set -- Getting students to focus their attention on the material to be presented -- getting them interested or prepared for what they are about to learn. Step 3: Objective -- State the objective for the lesson.

9 Step 4 Instruction Step 4: Input and Modeling -- Presenting new information to students, modeling where appropriate as one form of instruction.

10 Steps 5 and 6 Checking for understanding Step 5: Checking Understanding -- Determining whether or not students are making sense of the material as the material is being presented. Step 6: Guided Practice -- Immediately after instruction students are given the opportunity to apply or practice what they have just learned and receive immediate feedback.

11 Differences Between Steps 5 and 6
How are checking understanding and guided practice different? Checking understanding occurs in the process of instruction. Checking for understanding is often a whole-class process by observing body language or asking a simple question to the whole class. Guided practice takes place just after instruction has occurred. Guided practice may be done individually. Both involve quickly assessing whether students understand what has just been presented.

12 Step 7 Independent practice Step 7: Independent Practice -- After students appear to understand the new material they are given the opportunity to further apply or practice using the new information. This may occur in class or as homework, but there should be a short period of time between instruction and practice and between practice and feedback.

13 Step 8 Closure Step 8: Closure -- Actions or statements by a teacher that are designed to bring a lesson presentation to an appropriate conclusion. It is used to help students bring things together in their own minds, to make sense out of what has just been taught. "Any questions? No. OK, let's move on" is not closure.

14 Walkthrough and Focus 3-5 Minutes
Content—correct information (in TEKS) Context—How the Learning is Provided (Same format as test, etc.) Cognitive Level—Verb required in TEKS (See Bloom’s Taxonomy)

15 Mastery Teaching and Mastery Learning
A Model for Instructional Effectiveness

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