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Explicit Direct Instruction Critical Elements

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Teaching Grade Level Content The higher the grade the greater the disparity Test Scores go up when students are taught grade level content. Students perform no higher than the assignments given Students cannot learn what they are not taught.

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Powerful Effects on Student Learning The Taught Curriculum Instructional - typical classroom practice Assessment – Formative – influence instructional decisions Accountability – identify students for interventions Staff Development Implementation – practice and feedback

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Effective Teaching Effective – research based proven strategies Efficient – maximizing learning in the shortest amount of time. Provides an emphasis on making sense Relevant – Connected to real life applications

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Cognitive Learning Strategies Rehearsal Simple repetition Cumulative repetition Copying material Note taking Underlining text Guided practice Independent practice

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Cognitive Learning Strategies Elaboration Strategies Mnemonics Imagery Paraphrasing Predicting Summarizing Creating metaphors, analogies or similes Asking and answering questions

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Cognitive Learning Strategies Organizational Strategies Clustering Mnemonics Selecting Main Idea Outlining Mapping

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Cognitive Learning Strategies Pattern Recognition – helps learn concepts Generalization Examples Matched non-examples Action – Sequence Knowledge Procedural Steps

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Learning Objectives Situation A measurable student behavior What the student will be able to do as a result of instruction Why are objectives important? Instructional purpose is clear Must align to the independent practice

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Learning Objectives Must be based upon the content standards Content standards are deconstructed Language must be precise To write To list To analyze To solve

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Checking for Understanding Provides the earliest measure of whether students are learning the content. Continuous CFU is the backbone of Effective teaching Feedback from CFU allows the teacher to make instructional decisions during the lesson.

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Checking for Understanding Madeline Hunter defined teaching as: A conscious stream of decisions before, during and after instruction to maximize the probability of learning taking place…

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Instructional Questioning Teach Ask – the question Pause Pick – a student Listen Encourage or Elaborate if necessary

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Instructional Questioning Individual Group Random – non-volunteers White Boards Students must prove their comprehension CFU – on what was just taught CFU – interspersed continually throughout lessons

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Instructional Questioning Think time Go Kinetic – white boards – all students show answers at the same time. Popsicle sticks – numbering systems, etc. Time to find an answer Paraphrase – higher level

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Feedback – Hunter - RLL Timely - specific feedback – closely aligned to improved student achievement. Correct student errors as soon as they begin making them! Needs to be provided throughout lessons as needed. During presentations & Guided Practice Reactive – following independent practice

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Preview - Review Purpose is to activate prior knowledge All new learning is based upon prior learning – the brain associates new learning with long term memory to make sense of the new content.

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Preview - Review Preview New material to be presented by activating - connecting to prior knowledge or experiences Persuasive – trying to convince your mom to let you stay up later – real life experience

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Preview - Review Review Material that has been presented previously that deals with the lesson – reviews content students have already been taught. – makes explicit connections This past week we have been studying about settings. The critical elements of a setting include….

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Preview - Review Student’s prior knowledge activated Pertinent sub skill taught Students are told the connection to the new material to be taught. The idea is to make the learning of the new content easier for the students by connecting to something they already know. CFU

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Explanation Definitions Examples Non – examples Modeling Process

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Explanation What it is – making sense – the big idea – concept – the pattern Definition, rules, steps, etc Why it is important Relevance to real life – associated with brain research How it is done – CFU – at each point

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Modeling Teacher as expert Modeling is a powerful method of instruction Teacher provides inner thoughts – This is how I do it – first I …. Strategic solutions Modeling is important because students are seeing and hearing how experts solve problems – strategies, methods of remembering, how decisions are made…

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Modeling CFU What was I thinking when… How did I remember…. How did I decide…

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Demonstration Big Idea Physical demonstration or showing how to do something. Not practical for every lesson Why Important Accommodates visual and kinesthetic learners Visual – 46% Auditory – 19% Kinesthetic – 35%

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Demonstration How it is done – Teacher explains what, why or how while using a physical object. For maximum benefit – students also have objects

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Guided Practice Works problems with the students at the same time Works every type of problem that the students will be asked to do independently Provides many examples and non-examples

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Guided Practice Important Students are directly supervised by the teacher – who can correct misunderstanding quickly and efficiently. The best way is to begin working through problems slowly – for example a three step problem CFU after each step

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Guided Practice Purpose Provide practice – rehearsal for learning to occur Provide immediate feedback – ensure correct thinking Determine if additional teaching is needed Ensure student comprehension prior to assigning independent practice

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Closure Prime instructional time Students show what they have learned Closure is not a summary by the teacher Closure is a final checking for understanding Did the students master the objective? Is more guided practice needed? Is more teaching needed – altered instructional strategy?

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Independent Practice Massed practice for efficient learning Short intense practice sessions produce more learning than fewer but longer sessions. Distributed Practice Multiple practice sessions spread out over a period of time Increases probability that the learning is stored in long term memory

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