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1 Presented By: Linda Kopec Elizabeth Younce Understanding the ASCA National Model for School Counseling: Increasing Student Achievement and Counselor AccountabilityPresented By:Linda KopecElizabeth Younce
2 OVERVIEWThe American School Counselor Association (ASCA) collaborated to create a National Model for School Counseling Programs to connect school counseling with the current educational reform movements that emphasize student achievement and success.ASCA saw a need to develop a standardized framework for school counseling programs. In the spring of 2001, ASCA gathered the leaders in the field of school counseling in Tucson, Arizona to collaborate and create a National Model for School Counseling Programs. Using the National Standards for School Counseling as a foundation, ASCA developed the model after extensive review and synthesis of guidelines from states, districts and individual school sites. The ASCA National Model for School Counseling Programs provides a framework to organize school counseling programs, with the school counselor serving as the program leader. School counselors switch their emphasis from service-centered for some of the students to program-centered for every student.
3 RATIONALEBy aligning a school counseling program with the school/district mission and school improvement plan, school counselors:….Partner as leaders in systemic change….Ensure equity and access….Promote academic, personal/social and career development for every student.
4 Goals of School Counseling Program The ultimate goal of the school counseling program is to support the school’s academic mission.Ensuring academic achievement for every student includes counselor initiated activities designed to meet the needs of under-served, under-performing and under-represented populations.
5 People have wondered…. WHAT DO SCHOOL COUNSELORS DO? Throughout history, people HAVE wondered…what just is it that school counselors DO? There has not been consensus on this issue.
6 Historical Problems in School Counseling Programs Lack of consistent identityLimited or no involvement in reform movementsVariation in roles from state to state and site to siteNon-school counselor responsibilitiesClassroom coverage, discipline, master scheduling, and test coordination interfere.
7 The ASCA National Model What is a school counseling program?Prevention educationDevelopmental in natureA collaborative effortDriven by dataIntegrated into the Total Educational ProgramAcademics, Career, Personal/Social Development
8 Data DrivenWhat are some of your current data sources?
9 The old question was… What do counselors do? The new question is…. “HOW ARE STUDENTS DIFFERENT AS A RESULT OF THE SCHOOL COUNSELING PROGRAM?”
10 From Entitlement…To Performance From a Program that:Focuses generally on the number of activitiesMeasures the amount of effortAttends to the process of doing workWorks to maintain the existing systemFor school counseling programs, this means moving from programs that focus on the number of activities counselors perform, to focusing on the outcomes and results of these activities. OK, so you held 10 guidance lessons this week, eight groups and saw 15 individual students… SO WHAT??? Programs that focus on performance indicate the results of these activities. Collecting process data is important so that programs can see what they are doing and for whom, but the OUTCOMES of these programs are what stakeholders want to see
11 From Entitlement…To Performance To A Program That:Focuses on outcomes and improved resultsMeasures impact related to goalsAttends to goals, objectives, and outcomesChanges and adapts to be more responsive
12 From Entitlement…To Performance From counselors who:Focus on good intentionsTalk about how hard they workGenerally feel little need to change their behavior or approach
13 From Entitlement…To Performance To Counselors Who:Focus on accomplishmentsTalk about effectivenessKnow their future rests on accomplishmentsCommunicate goals and objectives
14 Implications What is the purpose of the school counseling program? What are the desired outcomes or results?What is being done to achieve those results?What evidence is there that the objectives have been met?Is the program making a difference?We need to ask ourselves….
15 School Counseling Programs Are About: LeadershipAssessmentTechnologyManaging ResourcesTeamingCollaborationData-Driven DecisionsAdvocacyMost of these probably look very familiar to you. Data driven decisions is the newcomer to this list. Now before anyone has flashbacks to statistics or research classes, let me assure you that we are talking about very simple data, no controlling for variables, standard errors of measurement, etc.
16 School Counseling Programs Are About: RESULTS!HOW ARE STUDENTS DIFFERENT AS A RESULT OF THE SCHOOL COUNSELING PROGRAM?If we were to sum up the national model in one sentence, this would be it.
17 Comprehensive School Counseling A Comprehensive School Counseling program includes:Program PlanningIndividual and Group CounselingConsulting (students, parents, teachers, agencies)Coordinating ServicesStudent AppraisalProfessional Development
18 I will direct you to your one page handout, as I think that is easier to the small print. Notice how the arrows are pointing. The parts of the model are entertwined.
19 The ASCA National Model Addresses the Comprehensive School Program:FOUNDATIONDELIVERY SYSTEMMANAGEMENT SYSTEMACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEMIMPLEMENTATION
20 Themes Throughout the Model ADVOCACYLEADERSHIPCOLLABORATIONSYSTEMIC CHANGE
21 FOUNDATION Beliefs and Philosophy Mission ASCA National Standards and CompetenciesDomains:Academic DevelopmentCareer DevelopmentPersonal/Social DevelopmentBeliefs and Philosophy – “we agree” statements, guides the program development, implementation and evaluation, consensus from all personnel involved in the programMission statement – Describes the program’s purpose, provides a vision of what every student should achieve, aligned with the school and district mission statements
22 Beliefs and Philosophy We “agree statementsGuide the program development, implementation and evaluationRequire consensus from all personnel involved in the program
23 Mission Statement Describes the program’s purpose Provides a vision of what every student should achieveAligned with the school and district mission statements
24 Standards from the National Model Standard 1: Program organizationStandard 2: School guidance curriculum delivered to all studentsStandard 3: Individual student planningStandard 4: Responsive ServicesStandard 5: Systems supportStandard 6: School counselor and administrator agreement
25 Standards from the National Model, continued Standard 7: Advisory CouncilStandard 8: Use of dataStandard 9: Student monitoringStandard 10: Use of time and calendarStandard 11: Results evaluationStandard 12: Program AuditStandard 13: Be a student advocate, leader, collaborator and systems change agent
26 Delivery System School Guidance Curriculum Individual Student Planning Responsive ServicesSystem SupportI would like point out that ASCA recommends that counselors spend 80% of their time in curriculum, individual student planning, and responsive services and that the remaining 20% of the time be spent supporting the Counseling ProgramGuidance Curriculum – structured lessons delivered to all students, related to standards and competencies, and integrated with the academic curriculum. The NC Standard Course of Study for School Counseling and Guidance is based on the National Model. The Guidance Curriculum is to be a shared responsibility between school counselors, teachers, parents, community and career development coordinators. To view the curriculum, go to DPI’s website: There are over 600 lesson plans on the site.Individual Student Planning: consists of ongoing systemic activities, designed to assist students in establishing personal goals, designed to assist students in developing future plansResponsive Services: designed to meet students’ immediate needs, individual, group and crisis counseling, consultation, referral, mediation, informationSystem Support: Program management activities that establish, maintain, and enhance the program, professional development activities, consultation, collaboration and teaming
27 Guidance Curriculum Structured lessons delivered to all students Related to standards and competenciesIntegrated with academic curriculumUse data to develop lessonsEnvironmental issuesDiscipline recordsStudent recordsStandardized test scores
28 Individual Student Planning Ongoing systemic activitiesDesigned to assist students in establishing personal goalsDesigned to assist students in developing future plansHelps students get from point A to point B
29 Counselor Planned and Directed Test score review, interpretation and analysisPromotion and retention informationCareer decision makingYearly course selectionTest taking strategies
30 Responsive Services Designed to meet students’ immediate needs Individual, group and crisis counselingConsultation, referral, mediation and informationAvailable to all students and parents
31 System SupportProgram management activities that establish, maintain, and enhance the programProfessional development activitiesConsultation, collaboration and teaming
32 Management System Agreements Advisory Council Use of Time Calendars Action PlansGuidance CurriculumClosing the GapUse of DataMonitoring Student ProgressManagement Agreements: To ensure effective implementation of the program, school counseling staffs make management decisions regarding the organization/assignment of school counselors and the school counseling office effective implementation of the delivery system and the needs of the department regarding professional development and consultation. between the school counselor and administrator, includes statements of responsibilities and how counselors will divide responsibilities in schools with more than one counselor, states specific results for which counselor is responsible, negotiated and approved at the beginning of the school yearAdvisory Council: An advisory council is a group of people appointed to review counseling program results and to make recommendations. Representatives are students, parents, teachers, counselors, administration and community members. Should meet twice a year – terms of membership 1-3 years, have specific agenda/notesUse of Time: A comprehensive school counseling program recommends that counselors spend 80% of their time in direct service (contact) with students. The National Model provides percentages that serve as a guide to school counselors and administrators when determining the time their program needs to spend in each of the four components of the delivery system.elementary middle highGuidance Curriculum % % %Individual Planning 5 – 10% % %Responsive Services % % %System Support % % %Calendars: master calendar, weekly calendar, published, ensures planned activities are completed, PR tool. Monthly/weekly calendars: group schedule, classroom guidance, individual planning, system support and responsive services times, parent conferences…. Master Calendar – annual – parent night, college night, financial aid nights, etc..Action Plans: For every competency and result assumed y counselors, there must a plan of how the counselor intends to achieve the desired result. Each plan contains: the competency addressed, the description of the activity, the data which drives the decision to address the competency, time activity is to be completed, who is responsible for delivery, the means of evaluating student success, and the expected results for students. Action Plan reflections: Are your objectives measurable? How will you measure? [ pre/post tests, comparison to base line data] Will your plan lead to results data? Process/perception/results. Will your plan require too much time on data collection? Can you use data elements that are already being collected? Are you revisiting the plan throughout the year?Use of Data: A comprehensive school counseling program is data driven. The use of data to effect change within the school system is integral to ensuring that every student receives the benefits of the school counseling program. School counselors must show that each activity implemented as part of the program was developed from a careful analysis of students’ needs, achievement and/or related data. Student Monitoring: monitoring students’ progress ensures that each student receives what he or she needs to achieve success in school. Areas to be monitored include student achievement data, achievement-related data and standards and competency based data. Collection, analysis and interpretation of student achievement data may be systemic by district, or specific to school, site, grade, class, or individual. Closing the Gap: The needs surface when disaggregated data is analyzed for every student. Where are we now? Where should we be? Where are we going to go?Existing data sources: report cards, discipline reports, post-graduation plans, EOGs/EOCs, Attendance reports, referrals. New Data sources: Pre/post activity surveys, needs assessments, focus groups, case studies, student portfolios
33 Agreements To ensure effective implementation of the program Based on delivery systems and needsNegotiated every year
34 Advisory Council Group appointed to review the guidance program Counselor, administrator, teachers, parents, students, community members
35 Use of Time Elementary Guidance Curriculum – 35 – 45% Individual Planning – 5 – 10%Responsive Services – 30 – 40%System Support – 10 – 15%
36 Use of Time Middle School Guidance Curriculum – 25 – 35% Individual Planning – 15 – 25%Responsive Services – 30 – 40%System Support – %
37 Use of Time High School: Guidance Curriculum – 15 -25% Individual Planning – 25 – 35%Responsive Services – 25 – 35%System Support – 15 – 20%
38 Calendars Master Calendar Weekly Calendar Published Ensures planned activities are completedPR Tool
39 Action Plans Domain, standard and competency Description of activity Curriculum and materials to be usedTime AllotmentPerson(s) responsibleEvaluation of student successExpected result
40 Action Plan Reflections Are your objectives measurable?Can you use data elements that are already being collected?Will the plan lead to results data?How will you measure?Pre/post testsComparison to baseline data
41 Use of DataStudent Monitoring – collection, analysis and interpretation of data to ensure all students achieve academic successClosing the Gap – Use of disaggregated data which discerns the discrepancies between the desired results and the results currently being achieved
42 How do Counselors Fit Into NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND? What can school counselors do to promote AYP, Closing the Gap, School Safety, etc.?Study skills and test-taking skills groups for low-performing studentsConflict Resolution TrainingCounseling students with suspension and absenteeism issuesStaff training on behavior management and school climate
43 Academic Results Interventions (Grades 6 – 8) After Academic Counseling Groups:37% of 6th Graders (64)24% of 7th Graders (47)72% of 8th Graders (46)Demonstrated GPA Improvement
44 Freshmen PromotionIncoming 9th grade students who had one or more D or F in the 8th grade were placed in a mentoring program with upperclassmen. 95% of participating students were promoted to the 10th grade, versus 80% of those outside of the program
45 Academic Goal SettingAfter classroom guidance lessons pre-post tests indicated…Student knowledge of goal setting increased from 10% to 90%90% achieved their identified goal
46 ACCOUNTABILITY Results Reports School counselor performance evaluationsProgram AuditResults Reports – Results reports, which include process, perception and results data, ensure that programs are carried out, analyzed for effectiveness, and changed and improved as needed. Sharing these reports with stakeholders serves to advocate for the students and the program. Immediate, intermediate and long range results are collected and analyzed for program improvement.S.C.P.E. – The school counselor’s performance evaluation contains basic standards of practice expected of school counselors implementing as school counseling program. These performance standards serve s both a basis for counselor evaluation and as a means for counselor self-evaluation.Program Audit/Evaluation – The program audit provides evidence of the programs alignment with the ASCA National Model for School Counseling Programs. The primary purpose of collecting information is to guide future action within the program and to improve future results for students.Why Accountability? Shows that school counselors intentionally and purposely act to “close the gap”, focuses activities on student achievement, demonstrates commitment to school improvement, highlights school counselors’ skills
47 Results Reports Data: Process Perception Results Over Time: Immediate, Intermediate, Long Range
48 Results Reports – Impact over Time Personal/Social ResultsConflict Resolution ( K – 5)Number of students who could peacefully resolve a conflict INCREASED from 55% to 88%Following implementation of a Conflict Manager program the number of suspended students was REDUCED from 13% in 97/98 to 3% in 01/02
49 Career Development (over 3 years) Scholarship dollars for students increased from $750,000 to $825,000Parent attendance increased from 150 – 500 at guidance sponsored eventsNumber of students visiting the career center increased from 30 to 200 dailyGraduation rates increased from 84 – 89%
50 What does an Audit tell us? Major strengths of the programAreas that need to be strengthenedCategorizes the rate of progress of each criteriaHelps to determine short and long range goals for improvement
51 IMPLEMENTATION Administrator Support Planned Steps On-going Program Evaluation
52 Steps to Implementation What if my school doesn’t want to change?Ask yourself…What are my students’ needs?What do I want to change?What do I have the power to change?What am I already doing that can be measured?START SMALL and use that data to support further expansion and change
53 Steps to Implementation 1. Planning the Program2. Building Your Foundation3. Designing the Delivery System4. Implementing the Program5. Making the Program Accountable
54 Next Steps Review action plans Learn from experience Look at ways to implement new pieces of the National Model each year for 3 -5 years
55 National Model Best Practices Start with what you can manageAlign with school and district goalsDefine “at-risk”Data! Data! Data!Write measurable goals and objectives that are reasonableWrite plans early, review them regularly
56 Best Practices Understand the trends, work with the details Collaborate with others at your schoolCollaborate with other schools
57 In Closing…..All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first thousand days, nor in the life of this administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet.BUT LET US BEGIN.John F. Kennedy
58 And Finally…. “WE NEED TO BE THE CHANGE WE WANT TO SEE HAPPEN. WE ARE THE LEADERS WE HAVE BEEN WAITING FOR.”Gandhi