Presentation on theme: "CED605 Curriculum Development Introduction Unit: One (1.A)"— Presentation transcript:
1 CED605 Curriculum Development Introduction Unit: One (1.A) Welcome to Unit One – the introduction to curriculum development. Harvey Hoyo, from the Costa Mesa campus, is the course custodian and I am ____________, from Spectrum Pacific. I will be your presenter for this session.This presentation includes several Quick Write sections which are designed to draw you into the lesson’s content and are for you to self reflect- they do not require that you turn anything in. It is recommended that you commit your ideas to writing because it forces you to internalize & give meaning to the ideas presented. For many students it is an effective learning tool.Dr. Harvey HoyoCourse Custodian
2 Knowledge Base Theory & Research Principle Best Practice Application AdaptationCredit goes to Mark Felton from NCATE for creating this diagram that depicts a students knowledge base. It is not enough for the school counseling candidates to use “best practice” pedagogy- it has to be linked into theory and research, principles of learning, application, your objectives, and, in order for the student to understand your presentation, it must be adapted to meet the student’s developmental level and needs.Note that the adaptation piece is critical, how you modify your instruction so that your students are able to understand, is loosely coupled and dependent on knowledge of students. Learning is not linear, (Pause) a straight line but a set of interlocking puzzle pieces in three dimensions. In this course, you will learn about how the student learns, how identify the information that you need to deliver to your students, and finally, how to get the information into their heads so that the students understand it and can apply it.
3 Learning & Instructional Design for School Counselors Goals of PresentationCurrent TrendsEd Trust & ASCA National ModelTiered Support ProgramsAccountability Impact on School CounselorsThis presentations reviews current trends in education, the Ed TRUST and ASCA National Model, the Tiered Support Programs which would include guidance programs for all students; and the accountability impact on school counselors as it relates to instruction. You will also be introduced to how guidance lessons are used in the school and how they are measured to determine their effectiveness. In another lesson, we will talk about how to build guidance lessons and how to facilitate engaging presentations.
4 Learning & Instructional Design for School Counselors A Quick WriteKWL:What do you know about delivering guidance lessons?What do you want to learn about delivering guidance lessons?What did you Learn about delivering guidance lessons?Pause for two minutes and answer the first two questions appearing on your screen. 1. What do you know about instructional design?2. What do you want to learn about instructional design? We will save the last question for later…..
5 Current Trends in Education Standards-based education reform (clear standards, rigorous curriculum, supports, accountability).Focus on idea that all students can learn.Focus on “we take students from where they are and move them forward.”Focus on the achievement gap (systemic not traditional mental health model).Data driven decision-making.(Note animations)Before moving forward, let’s review the five points on your screen- they highlight some of the major current trends impacting school counselors in education today. (Pause)Standards-based education reform (clear standards, rigorous curriculum, supports, accountability) focus on idea that all students can learn.They also focus on taking students from where they are academically and moving them forward. In addition, Standards-based education reform focuses on the elimination of the achievement gap (systemic not traditional mental health model); and finally, Standards-based education reform focuses on making data driven decisions when counseling students or when planning guidance units.
6 Current Change Models For School Counselors Education Trust Transforming School Counseling Initiative.American School Counseling Association National Standards and Model for School Counseling Programs.State Initiatives (e.g. Texas, California).Results-based Guidance (Johnson & Johnson).As with anyone preparing to teach a lesson, one needs to be aware of the mission of the school in which you are working. As you think of a particular school’s mission, you also need to be aware of the change models for your profession, whether it is being a teacher, school principal, or in our case, being a school counselors. In this screen we highlight four major change models for school counselors. The Education Trust Transforming School Counseling Initiative which seeks to eliminate achievement gaps by data driven student support programs and effective instruction; the American School Counseling Association National Standards and Model for School Counseling Programs which seek to provide guidance for a comprehensive school counseling program; specific State Initiatives (e.g. Texas, California) which are aiming at using statewide data to bring about quality instruction; andResults-based Guidance (Johnson & Johnson) which, as the title implies, uses data driven decision making to impact students.
7 Education Trust ModelThe Achievement Gap is the most significant educational problem of our day.Much of the Achievement Gap results from factors that are under the control of schools.School Counselors must focus on achievement issues through both individual and systemic work.(Note animations)Looking closer at the Ed Trust model we see a focus on the elimination of the achievement gap which schools can do something about if they choose to focus on it by individual and systemic work.
8 Education Trust Model Poor and Minority Students are Much Less Likely to Have: Exposure to a challenging college preparatory curriculum.Challenging classroom projects and homework assignments.Placement in 8th grade algebra, honors, and college placement courses.Access to effective academic support programs.Data provided by the Ed Trust notes that poor and minority students, or underserved students, are less likely to have exposure to a challenging college preparatory curriculum; challenging classroom projects and homework assignments; placement in 8th grade algebra, honors, and college placement courses; and access to effective academic support programs. The Ed Trust believes that if a student is not ready Algebra I in the 8th grade, they are automatically behind and will need some remediation prior to entering a college or university after high school. For that reason, Eighth grade Algebra I is called a “gate way” course. It opens doors for a rigorous curriculum in the high school.
9 Education Trust Model The Role of School Counselors needs to be redefined: Present Focus: New Vision:Mental Health FocusIndividual student’s concerns and issuesClinical model focused on student deficitsAcademic Achievement FocusWhole school and system concerns/issuesDevelopmental model building on student strengths.From your CED604 course, recall the shift in our role toward an academic achievement focus; dealing with whole school and system concerns or issues; and developing a counseling model based on student strengths rather than on the old clinical model which focused on student deficits.
10 Education Trust Model Redefining The Role of School Counselors: Present Focus: New Vision: Guardians of the status quoInvolved primarily with studentsDependent on system’s resourcesPostsecondary planners with interested studentsAgents of change for equity and social justiceInvolved with students, parents, educators, communityBrokers for services for students and parents.Champions for creating pathways for all students to achieve high aspirationsTherefore our role is re-defined as change agents for equity and social justice; (Pause) we are more involved not only with students, but with parents, educators, community; we provide greater brokering of services for students and parents rather than direct delivery of student services; and we are champions for creating pathways for all students to achieve high aspirations.
11 Quick WriteHow does the Education Trust impact your future as an effective school counselor?Take 30 seconds and answer the question: How does the Education Trust impact your future as an effective school counselor?
12 ASCA Model School Counseling Program “ASCA has developed a National Model for School Counseling Programs to connect school counseling with current educational reform movements that emphasize academic achievement.”Now we review the American School Counseling Association’s National Model for School Counseling Programs which seeks to connect school counseling with current educational reform movements that emphasize academic achievement.
13 ASCA Model School Counseling Program The model aligns the counseling program with the school’s academic mission. School Counselors: ●Are Leaders in Systemic Change ● Foster Equity and Access ●Promote Academic, Career and Personal/Social Development for ALL StudentsThe ASCA National Model sees counselors as leaders in systemic change. The National Model sees us fostering equity and access for all students in the three domains of academics, career, and personal/social development for all students. And, especially for this course, the National Model sees counselors providing guidance lessons as a major way to address serving all students. As we will discuss later, guidance lessons fall into the tier one intervention strategy.
14 ASCA National ModelAs you understand, the ASCA National Model graphic provides an overall conceptualization of the school counselors role. Note the terms advocacy, systemic change, leadership. While in this class, these are background themes- they are important none the less. For this class we focus on the Delivery System; specifically, the delivery of age-appropriate guidance lessons possibility involving character education, high school graduation requirements, preparing for higher education, etc. – all of which are aligned to the district educational/assessment standards, the California State Standards, and the ASCA National Model.As you view the graphic, you will notice there are four areasFOUNDATIONDELIVERY SYSTEMMANAGEMENT SYSTEMACCOUNTABILITYThe visual show that the foundation, a program’s core beliefs, philosophy and mission, dictates both how the program is management and how it is delivered.These two components go hand in hand:Delivery system is the ways in which counselors deliver services.The management system ensures that the delivery system is planned, organized, directed and controlled in a systematic fashion for every student.Both the delivery and management lead to the Accountability component.And accountability leads back to the foundation because results of our program lead to program improvement, which begins once again with the foundation.
15 Delivery System School Guidance Curriculum Individual Student Planning Responsive ServicesSystem SupportGuidance Curriculum – The guidance curriculum component consists of structured developmental lessons designed to assist students in achieving the competencies and is presented systematically through classroom and group activities K-12. The purpose of the guidance curriculum is to provide every student with the knowledge and skills appropriate for the developmental level. Individual Student Planning– The individual planning component consists of school counselors coordinating ongoing systemic activities designed to assist individual students in establishing personal goals and developing future plans. Responsive Services – The responsive services component consists of activities to meet the immediate need of students. These needs require counseling, consultation, referral, peer mediation or information. Systems Support – Systems support consists of the administration and management activities that establish, maintain and enhance the total counseling program such as liaison meetings with special education teachers at the school or establish a guidance advisory committee, or participation in the Professional Learning Communities sub committees.
16 Management System Agreements Advisory Council Use of Data Monitoring Student ProgressClosing the GapAction PlansGuidance CurriculumUse of TimeAgreements – To ensure effective implementation of the program, school counseling staffs make management decisions regarding the organization/assignment of school counselors and the school counseling office effective implementation of the delivery system and the needs of the department regarding professional development and consultation. These agreements should be negotiated with and approved by designated administrators at the beginning of each school year. Advisory Council – An advisory council is a group of people appointed to review counseling program results and to make recommendations. Representatives are students, parents, teachers, counselors, administration, and community members. Use of Data – A comprehensive school counseling program is data driven. The use of data to effect change within the school system is integral to ensuring that every student receives the benefits of the school counseling program. School counselors must show that each activity implemented as part of the program was developed from a careful analysis of students’ needs, achievement and/or related data.Student Monitoring - Monitoring students’ progress ensures that each student receives what he or she needs to achieve success in school. Areas to be monitored can include student achievement data, achievement-related data and standards and competency-related data. Collection, analysis, and interpretation of student achievement data may be systemic by district, or specific to school site, grade, class or individual and should be the bases for the development of grade appropriate guidance curricula. (Pause) Closing the Gap - The use of data should drive the program. The needs surface when disaggregated data is analyzed for every student. Data is necessary to determine: Where are we now? Where should we be? and Where are we going to go? Data identifies needs and discrepancies between the desired results and the results currently being achieved. (The Gap)Action Plans deal with two general areas: the Guidance Curriculum and Closing the Achievement Gap. In the next several slides we will explore more deeply how the National Model impacts guidance lessons in the school setting. But, for now, realize that for every competency and result assumed by counselors, there must be a plan of how the counselor intends to achieve the desired result. Each plan contains (1) the competency addressed, (2) the description of the activity, (3) the data which drives the decision to address the competency (4) time activity is to be completed, (5) who is responsible for delivery, (6) the means of evaluating student success, and (7) the expected results for students.Use of Time –A comprehensive school counseling program recommends that counselors spend 80% of their time in direct service (contact) with students. The National Model provides percentages that serve as a guide to school counselors and administrators when determining the time their program needs to spend in each of the four components of the delivery system. For example, the National Model calls for elementary counselors to spend between 35 to 45% of their time on Guidance curriculum; for middle school counselors it is 25 to 35% and for high school counselors the recommended time is between 15 to 25% of a counselors time should be spent on Guidance Lessons.
17 Accountability Result Reports School Counselor Performance Evaluations Impact Over TimePre-Post assessments for guidance lessonsSchool Counselor Performance EvaluationsProgram/Curriculum AuditsResults Reports– Results reports, which include process, perception and results data, ensure that programs are carried out, analyzed for effectiveness, and changed and improved as needed. Sharing these reports with stakeholders serves to advocate for the students and the program. Immediate, intermediate and long range results are collected and analyzed for program improvement. As school counselors implement a school counseling program, they are subject to performance standards which serve as both a basis for counselor evaluation and as a means for counselor self-evaluation. Program Audit/Evaluation – The program audit provides evidence of the programs alignment with ASCA National Model for School Counseling Programs. The primary purpose for collecting information is to guide future action within the program and to improve future results for students or as we said, data driven decision making or intentional guidance.
18 From Moreno Valley Unified Academic DevelopmentFrom Moreno Valley UnifiedGuidance Curriculum (HS)Developing Academic 4/6 year PlansPromotion/Retention CriteriaOrganization, Study and Testing Taking SkillsRegistration, College and High School Graduation RequirementsPost High School OptionsTransition into the Real WorldThe next few slides are samples taken from a School Board presentation delivered in Moreno Valley Unified School District in Southern California. This first slide shows a sample of the high school guidance curriculum topics in the academic domain. School Counselors used district wide and school site data and needs assessments to select these topic areas, aligned them with ASCA National Standards, presented them to students, and collected results of their lessons. Here is where I want you to think about your role in developing a guidance curriculum which not only entails dealing with content; but as we shall soon discuss, your lesson will also deal with methodologies used to deliver the instruction (or pedagogy) as well as ways to measure your effectiveness- in other words, did the students learn what they were supposed to learn? How do you know?
19 Academic Results Goal Setting (K-5) After classroom guidance lessons pre-post tests indicated…student knowledge of goal setting increased from 10% to 98%90% achieved their identified goalThis slide shows how school counselors measured the results of their program which taught students to set goals at one elementary school site. School counselors prepared the lessons, gave pre-post tests, and, as a result, student knowledge of goal setting increased from 10 to 98% with 90% of the students achieving their identified goal.
20 Academic Results Interventions (6-8) After Academic Counseling Groups:37% of 6th graders (64)24% of 7th graders (47)72% of 8th graders (46)Demonstrated GPA improvementAt one middle school site, after identifying students in need of academic assistance through a student data base query, school counselors met with teachers, students, parents and held skill building sessions in the areas of student skills and attitude. As you can see, the results were quite effective, specifically at 8th grade where 72% of the students demonstrated GPA improvement.
21 Academic Results Interventions (6-8) Pre: Post:Students on retention list:6th - 817th - 738th - 103Students who came off retention list:6th - 277th - 228th - 23At this school site, school counselors presented guidance lessons of promotion retention criteria. The pre-post test had indicated that only 15% of student understood the promotion retention criteria before the lessons, 100% understood following the intervention. Additionally, school counselors met individually and in small groups with students who were identified as retention candidates. As this slide indicates, 72 students avoided retention as a results of this intervention. Now, while school counselors can’t take all the credit, they certainly know they were contributing to the academic achievement of students.72 students avoided retention
22 Personal/Social Results Conflict Resolution (K-5) Number of students who couldpeacefully resolve a conflict increasedfrom 55% to 88%Following implementation of a Conflict Manager program the number of suspended students was reduced from 13% to 3% in the current year.Conflict resolution became a site goal one year at this elementary and as you can see, the number of students who could peacefully resolve a conflict increased from 55% to 88%. That involved a school counselor delivering specific lessons in the kindergarten to five grade classrooms as well as implementation of a Conflict Manager program. The data demonstrates that the number of suspended students was reduced from 13% in in the base year to 3% in the current year. That data would impress any school board member since it reduced administrative time managing discipline and hopefully improved student learning as well.
23 Personal/Social Results Conflict Resolution (6-8) At one site the number of students resolving conflicts with the help of peer mediators increased from 0 to 346At another site, the number who took advantage of peer mediation increased from 47 to 149 with a decrease in referrals by 10%Sometimes data indicate that new programs and services are needed. At this school site, a peer mediation program was started and the results are clearly positive: the number of students resolving conflicts with the help of peer mediators increased from 0 to 346. At another site, a lesson on the importance of seeking peer assistance and greater marketing of an existing program led to an increase in the number of students who took advantage of peer mediation, from 47 to 149 and decreased referrals by 10%.
24 Career Development Canyon Springs High School In the last three years the number of students visiting the career center has increased from 30 to over 200 students per day with the satisfaction survey indicating 80% increase in relevancy.Parent attendance at evening guidance events has increased from 150 to 500 parents with post evaluations as 97% favorable.Scholarship dollars for students increased from $750,000 to $925, 000Finally, graduation rates have improved from84 % to 89%One year, Canyon Springs High School focused on improving student use of the career center. A new guidance assistant was hired to help the school counselors with clerical responsibilities related to the career center and with organizing speakers and the details of the evening guidance presentations provided by the school counselors for parents and students. As you can see, it was quite effective. In three years, the number of students visiting the career center increased from 30 to over 200 students per day. Parent attendance at evening guidance events increased from 150 to 500 parents. Scholarship dollars for students increased from $750,000 to $925, 000 and finally, graduation rates improved from 84 % to 89%. Caution however with the over emphasis of process data without results data.
25 Quick WriteWhat are simple; but effective ways you can measure the student success in your guidance lessons?In 30 seconds, think of a future guidance lesson you will deliver, what are ways in which you can measure student success? Jot your answer down, as you will discussion this issue in a future threaded discussion.
26 Levels of Intervention Tier 35%Tier 220%Tier 1100%(Note Animation)We move to a new topic: we review the Tiered Model of Student Interventions. This is the tiered model that is being used in many school districts. In Tier 1 (Pause and click) all students receive primary services such as guidance lessons; some students receive the (Pause and Click) Tier 2 services which may include direct counseling services by the school counselor, special anger management group sessions organized by the school counselor, or after school tutorial support services and the more intensive services such as special education or clinical counseling referrals to outside agencies are delivered to (Pause and click) Tier 3 students and their families. (Pause and click) Note in the Tiered Model all students are not treated the same.
27 Sample Tier I Programs 1. School improvement efforts/school climate 2. School-wide approach to discipline3. Building student competencies with aComprehensive Guidance Curriculum4. Career Development Education: Navigation101, ROP Career Labs, Career AcademiesHere we look closer at the programs delivered in a Tier I level School improvement efforts/school climate initiatives such as teaching tolerance, implementing Character Education, or Students for Success Programs. 2. School-wide approach to discipline where common classroom procedures are instituted. 3. Building student competencies with a Comprehensive Guidance Curriculum and 4. Career Development Education: like Navigation 101, ROP Career Labs, or Career Academies.
28 Tier 1/Primary Prevention (School-Wide): Successful Programs Comprehensive Guidance Curriculum receivedby all students: Violence/Bullying Prevention Programs- Second Step/Steps to Respect ViolencePrevention (Elem and MS versions)- Olweus Bullying Prevention Programs (K-8)- Bully Proofing Your School (best family components)- Bully Busters (teacher-based) (K-8)-PeaceBuilders (K-6)On this screen you will see some typical counseling prevention programs used at the Tier 1 level. Pause the presentation to better scan the programs. (Pause) Specific information is available on the internet. Websites for many of these and other guidance programs are listed in the reference section of your course outline.
29 Tier 1/Primary Prevention (School-Wide): Successful Programs Academic Skill development- Caring School Community (K-6)Student Success Skills (4-9)Social/Emotional Skill development- Social Decision Making/Social Problem Solving(2-8)- Resolving Conflicts Creatively Program (1-6)- Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies(PATHS) (K-6)- I Can Problem Solve (ICPS) (PreK-5)We continue listing examples of Tier 1 prevention program. This time we focus in academic skill development and social/emotional skill development domains. Note: for your project in this course, you may be developing lessons in these areas. Again, feel free to stop the presentation to better review the sample programs.
30 Tier 1/Primary Prevention (School-Wide): Successful Programs Social skill development: Drug, alcohol, violence prevention- Life Skills Training (K-12)Lions-Quest Skills (K-12)Project Achieve (PreK-8, has been used in HS)- Project Northland (6-8)- Michigan Model for Comprehensive SchoolHealth Education (K-12)In this slide, we focus on the social skill development domain. Again, feel free to stop the presentation to review the sample program titles.
31 Tier 1/Primary Prevention (School-Wide): Successful Programs Career Planning (Sample Program)NAVIGATION 101: Career Planning- Focused on Goal Setting- Bimonthly, 45 minute meetings- Grades 6 thru 12 (Sequence )- Nine recurring Themes- Twenty Advisory-based Lessons Per Year- 140 Downloadable Lesson Plans- Online Materials to Support Implementation- Evaluation Data TemplatesHere is more in depth information on the career Planning program called Navigation Note the web site should you require more information about the program. ( Pause)This program focused on goal setting for students in grades 6 to 12 in bimonthly 45 minute meetings. The lessons included nine recurring themes with pre-planned lessons that develop the themes involved in career planning. And, of course, the program includes an evaluation system. As an aside, remember it is easier to work with a students when they know their goals and objectives. It is in a counselors best to assure that appropriate tier I guidance programs are in place. As you complete you field hours hours for this course, plan to identify as many tier 1 programs at your school site.
32 Tier 1/Primary Prevention (School-Wide): Successful Programs Data Demonstrates: students who participated in NAV 101:- More likely to have parents participate in studentconferences- More likely to stay in school and move from 9th to10th grade without dropping out- Greater success passing important “gatekeeper” courses (e.g., Algebra, Physics, and Chemistry)- Had higher 10th grade state achievement test scores(Math, Reading, and Writing)- Had higher high school graduation rates- Less likely to need remedial courses in their college programsThis slide touches on the accountability portion of the NAV101 Guidance Program. Notice the items that the program measures. (Pause) Quickly scan the slide for the details. (Pause) Participants were more likely to have parents participate in student conferences; more likely to stay in school and move from 9th to 10th grade without dropping out; demonstrated greater success passing important “gatekeeper” courses, like Algebra, Physics, and Chemistry; had higher 10th grade state achievement test scores in Math, Reading, and Writing; had higher high school graduation rates than non-participants; and finally were less likely to need remedial courses in their college programs.
33 Levels of Intervention Model As we begin to wind down this presentation, this slide serves to demonstrate an example of the tiered services from one Southern California school district. It does not matter of you do not recognize some of the programs- they are developed particularly for the Placentia –Yorba Linda Unified School District. (Pause) The point with this slide is to notice how counselors are involved in each level of the tiered intervention. The bottom level involves services for all students. Here is where your guidance lessons typically occur in a school setting whether elementary or secondary. Strategic Interventions occur in the middle level and do not involve all of the students. And, what the district calls, Intensive Interventions occur at the point of this tiered model which may involve 5% of the student population.
34 Guidance Lessons Components WhatHowAt this point, you have been exposed to many topics that a guidance lesson addresses such as establishing caring relationships, asset building the high school graduation requirements, getting into a good college, etc. You have addressed the “What” students are learning.(Pause) Also part of the puzzle that you will be learning in this course is the “how.” How are the lessons structured to address the needs of the students. What activities are used to stimulate their interest. What does brain research tells us about the way kids learn? How are you facilitating the lesson, for example, are you using an interactive PowerPoint, are you using role playing, are you setting up a jeopardy type quiz to measure your students learning. These activities you will learn about in the next lesson. Both are essential ingredients of an effective lesson. Effective counselors who are developing guidance lessons address the “What” and the “How.” Do these two things and you will never find yourself blaming the students who say to you that your lesson was boring or that they already “know that stuff.”
35 Comprehensive Developmental Program Phase (Gybers & Myrick) School Guidance programs ensure that all students have access to support for academic, career, and personal/social development.School Counselors use Individual Planning, Responsive Services, Guidance Curriculum and System Support.School Counselors are accountable for time spent on different activities.Finally, we turn to Norm Gybers is one of the guru’s in school counseling. In his conception of a comprehensive developmental guidance program he outline three key points. School Guidance programs ensure that all students have access to support for academic, career, and personal/social development.2. School Counselors use Individual Planning, Responsive Services, Guidance Curriculum and System Support. And 3. School Counselors are accountable for time spent on different activities.
36 Quick WriteHow will the accountability movement impact your role while presenting guidance lessons?In 30 seconds answer this question: How will the accountability movement impact your role while presenting guidance lessons?
37 Additional Resources ASCA National Model (Bowers & Dahir, 2002) Education TrustEducation Watch, The Education Trust Community Data GuideAmerican Student Achievement InstituteShould you have time or interest, on your screen appears some website that can provide you with more relevant information. These resources can be useful when preparing your group project for this course.
38 we have been waiting for. We need to be the changewe want to see happen.We are the leaderswe have been waiting for.-GandhiFinally, know that school counselors are instructional Leaders and they are change agents.
39 Learning & Instructional Design for School Counselors What did you learn about guidance lessons impacting your role as a school counselor?We end with our last Quick Write: What two major things about guidance lessons did you learn that will impact your role as a school counselor?Jot your answer down as it will appear in this week’s chat.(Pause) In the meantime, on behalf of Harvey Hoyo, the course custodian, I am __________ from Spectrum Pacific, wishing you a pleasant good evening.