Presentation on theme: "Mycobacterium Tuberculosis"— Presentation transcript:
1 Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Shelbi ArnoldNorthern Arizona UniversityBackground image of M. tuberculosis. scanning electron microscope courtesy of CDC
2 Epidemiology of Tuberculosis Tuberculosis is a infectious disease produced by a pathogenic microorganism caused by the inhalation or ingestion of the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis)Tuberculosis is transmitted via microscopic airborne droplets when an infected person coughs, sneezes, breathes or speaks
3 Background Information The primary site of TB is in the lungsInfection can spread to other systemsMusculoskeletalGenitourinaryCentral nervousIntegumentaryTB thrives in overpopulated, developing countries, and among drugs users, the homeless and immunosuppressed individuals.
4 Strands of Tuberculosis Inactive or latentPerson is infected with the disease, but has no signs or symptomsActivePerson is infected and is experiencing signs and symptoms such as fever, loss of appetite, hemoptysis, cough, night sweats, and fatigue (Gavrilut & Pop, 2012).Multi-drug Resistant TBPerson is infected and is resistant to drugs used to treat the infectionEither due to prior noncompliance of drug regimens or specific strands of TB
5 Clinical Diagnosis Radiological exams Bacteriological exams Chest xray or chest CT scanPresents as pulmonary scarring,cavitary lesions, infiltrates,pleural effusions and atelectasisBacteriological examsConsecutive collection of sputum for the testing of blood presenceBacterial testing of biopsied tissue from lungs
6 Recovery, Disability or Death Outcomes of those infected with Tuberculosis:Recovery with no disabilityRegimens of antibiotics or chemotherapySurgical resection of affected lobe of lung or lung in its entiretyIf drug regimens are not followed or TB has progressed into multi-drug resistant strands, recovery is unlikelyDeath
7 Demographics and Health Statistics United States 2011 NationallyAgeThose 65 and older are the most highly affectedGenderGlobally the ratio of male to female cases of reported TB stands at 1: , males are reported almost twice as many times as females (Nur, Ozsahin, Arslan, Sumer, 2009).RacePacific Islanders the most affected race/ethnicityGeographic locationHigh Tuberculosis burdens occur in large cities such as New York, Florida, Texas and CaliforniaAccount for more than 50% of the national TB cases (Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2010, p. 3).Nationally, TB cases continue to decline
8 TB Morbidity United States, 2005 - 2010 YearNumberRate per 100,000 populations200514,0684.8200613,7324.6200713,2864.4200812,9054.2200911,5373.8201011,1823.6(Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2011, p. 101)
9 CDC (2011). Tuberculosis Surveillance Slides Trends and PatternsNational Impact- Prevalence rateAs of 2011, there were an estimated 4.7 per 100,000 populations infected with TB (Global Tuberculosis Report, 2012)CDC (2011). Tuberculosis Surveillance Slides
10 Epidemiologic Measures International ImpactIncidence rate (past 10 years)Between 2010 and 2000 incidence rates declined from 141 per 100,000 populations to 128 per 100,000 populations (Bachh, Gupta, Hag & Varudkar, 2012, p. 83)Prevalence rateAs of 2012, there were an estimated 12,000,000 people living with TB (Global Tuberculosis Report, 2012, p. 10)Mortality rate (past 10 years)Between 2000 and 2010 mortality rates declined from 22 per 100,000 populations to 15 per 100,000 populations (Barnes et. al., 2011, p. 141)
11 International ImpactThe WHO’s Global Tuberculosis Report, 2012 states that as of 2011 there were an estimated 12,000,000 people living with Tuberculosis worldwide (p. 10).One-third of the world’s population is latently infected with TB (McShane, 2003).The 1990 WHO report on the Global Burden of Disease ranked tuberculosis as the seventh most morbidity-causing disease in the world, and expected it to continue in the same position up to 2020 (Bachh, Gupta, Hag, & Varudkar, 2010).
12 Demographics and Trends in India “India is highest tuberculosis (TB) burden country globally, accounting for more than one-fifth of the global incidence” (Ananthakrishnan, Jeyaraj, Palani, & Sathiyasekaran, 2012).In 2011, males ages between 35 and 44 were the highest reported group of newly notified cases by age and genderIn 2011, females ages between 35 and 44 were the highest reported group of newly notified cases by age and genderGlobally, TB cases continue to decline
13 IndiaPercentages of risk of contracting tuberculosis based on geographic location in India in the year 2004Urban areas (2.2%; 1.8%−2.6%)Rural areas (1.3%; 1.0%−1.5%) (38)North (1.9%; 1.3%−2.5%)West (1.6%; 1.0%−2.2%)East (1.3%; 1.0%−1.6%)South (1.0%; 0.7%−1.4%)(A brief history of tuberculosis control in India, 2004, p. 7).
14 New Case Notifications in 2011 South East Asia MalesFemalesAgeNew cases0-146,49015-24114,25425-34136,14235-44141,63645-54135,59255-64106,42065+72,640AgeNew cases0-1410,65415-2485,37625-3484,38335-4464,86845-5450,92055-6436,75565+21,593Global Tuberculosis Report 2012
15 Disease Prevention and Management The Stop TB Partnership sector of the WHO called DOTS (directly observed therapy, short-course), has a goal to bring the global incidence of active TB to less than one case per 1,000,000 population per year by 2050(Onozaki & Raviglione, 2010)DOTS goal componentsSputum smear microscopy (SSM)Directly observed treatment with standardized short-course chemotherapyA system to deliver drugs without interruption and free of chargeStandardized recording and reporting of casesNational political commitment(Keeler et al., 2006)
16 GlobalizationDue to the spread of the infection via airborne transmission, globalization is a high topic of concern for the spread and containment of the diseaseDangers include:Tight, closed quartersPoorly ventilated environmentsNoncompliant infected individualsUltimately the health and safety of others is the responsibility of the infected individual to obey physicians orders and remain isolated if infected
17 Economic ImpactFinancing TB control in the US in 2012 and 2013 estimates a total budget of $140 million (Global Tuberculosis Report 2012).“Between 2002 and 2009, the annual budget for TB control in India grew from US$ 36 million to US$ 100 million” (A brief history of Tuberculosis control in India, 2010, p. 5)Costs can includeTransportation to treatment facilitiesDiagnosis and consecutive medical treatmentExpenses from work and time missed from schoolIn India, some TB patients spend 20% to 40% of their annual family income being treated for TB (A brief history of Tuberculosis control in India, 2010)
18 ReferencesA brief history of tuberculosis control in India. (2010) World Health Organization. Retrieved fromAnanthakrishnan, R., Jeyaraj, A., Palani, G., & Sathiyasekaran, B. C. (2012). Socioeconomic impact of TB on patients registered within RNTCP and their families in the year 2007 in Chennai, India. Lung India, 29(3), Doi:10:4103/Bachh, A. A., Gupta, R., Hag, I., & Varudkar, H. G. (2010). Diagnosing sputum/smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis: Does fibre-optic bronchoscopy play a significant role? Lung India, 27(2), doi: /Barnes, R. W., Moore, M., Garfein, R. S., Brodine, S., Strathdee, S. A., & Rodwell, T. C. (2011). Trends in Mortality of Tuberculosis Patients in the United States: The Long-Term Perspective . Annals Of Epidemiology, 21(10),CDC. Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, October 2012.
19 ReferencesGăvrilut, A. I., & Pop, C. M., (2012). Study of correlation between several diagnostic tests for latent tuberculosis. Analele Societatii Nationale De Biologie Celulara, 17(2),Keeler, E., Perkins, M. D., Small, P., Hanson, C., Reed, S., Cunningham, J., Aledort, J. E., Hillborne, L., Rafael, M. E., Girosi, F., & Dye, C. (2006). Reducing the global burden of tuberculosis: The contribution of improved diagnostics. Nature, p doi: /nature05446.McShane, H. (2003). Susceptibility to tuberculosis: The importance of the pathogen as well as the host. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 133(1), doi: /j xNur, N., Ozsahin, L., Arslan, S., & Sumer, H. (2009). An evaluation of gender differences in the epidemiology to tuberculosis. Heatlhmed, 3(4)Onozaki, I., & Raviglione, M. (2010). Stopping tuberculosis in the 21st century: Goals and strategies. Respirology, 15(1), doi: /j x.WHO. Global Tuberculosis Report, Switzerland, Information Resource Center, WHO, 2012.