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TB Disease and Latent TB Infection

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Presentation on theme: "TB Disease and Latent TB Infection"— Presentation transcript:

1 TB Disease and Latent TB Infection
Karen Galanowsky RN, MPH Nurse Consultant, TB Program New Jersey Department of Health & Senior Services

2 Transmission of M. tuberculosis
Spread by droplet nuclei Expelled when person with infectious TB coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings Close contacts at highest risk of becoming infected Transmission occurs from person with infectious TB disease (not latent TB infection)


4 Latent TB Infection (LTBI)
LTBI is the presence of M. tuberculosis organisms (tubercle bacilli) without symptoms or radiographic evidence of TB disease With LTBI, the person is healthy and cannot spread TB to anyone

5 Testing for M. tuberculosis Infection
Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST) Skin test that produces delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in persons with M. tuberculosis infection Use a cut point of 5mm or 10 mm depending upon the reason for testing QuantiFERON® -TB Gold Test Blood test that measures and compares amount of interferon-gamma (IFN-) released by blood cells in response to TB antigens

6 Persons at Risk for Developing TB Disease
Persons at high risk for developing TB disease fall into 2 categories Those who have been recently infected Those with clinical conditions that increase their risk of progressing from LTBI to TB disease HIV Uncontrolled diabetes Cancer of the head or neck TNF-alpha blockers

7 Targeted Tuberculin Testing
Detects persons with LTBI who would benefit from treatment De-emphasizes testing of groups that are not at high risk for TB Can help reduce the waste of resources and prevent inappropriate treatment :

8 When TB Disease Develops Symptoms
Prolonged cough Night sweats Loss of appetite Weight loss Fatigue Fever Chills Coughing up blood Chest pain

9 Evaluation for TB Medical history Physical examination
Mantoux tuberculin skin test or Quantiferon-TB Gold Chest radiograph Bacteriology testing for smear and culture identification

10 Common Sites of TB Disease
Lungs Pleura Central nervous system Lymphatic system Genitourinary systems Bones and joints Disseminated (miliary TB)

11 Principles of Treatment for TB Disease
Treatment for TB disease is usually 6 – 9 months The four first-line drugs should be used initially until drug susceptibility studies are determined. Dosages should be calculated based on weight (mg/kg) All TB medications should be ingested together the approximately at the same time daily TB medications may be given intermittently (twice or thrice weekly by directly observed therapy after the initial phase of treatment.

12 MDR and XDR-TB MDR-TB - Mycobacterium TB that is resistant to at least Isoniazid and Rifampin XDR TB is defined as resistance to the four first-line drugs, an injectable, and one of the quinolones Individuals with XDR TB are more likely to die during treatment or have treatment failure XDR TB has emerged worldwide as a threat to public health and TB control raising concerns for a future epidemic of virtually untreatable TB Second-line anti-TB medications are used in the treatment of MDR and XDR-TB. These are costly, difficult to administer, and cause serious side effects

13 Factors that Affect TB Transmission
Infectiousness of person with TB Environment in which exposure occurred Duration of exposure Proximity to the infectious person

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