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Egle Jaceviciute and Ekrem Kuralay

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1 Egle Jaceviciute and Ekrem Kuralay
What is migration? What types of migration exist? Legal, illegal, irregular migrants; refugees; labour migration. Egle Jaceviciute and Ekrem Kuralay

2 Basic notions Migration – is the crossing of the boundary of a political or administrative unit for a certain minimum period of time. It includes the movement of refugees, displaced persons, uprooted people as well as economic migrants. Types: Internal migration International migration

3 Facts Today 192 million people live outside their place of birth - it is about 3% of the world's population; 1 of every 35 persons in the world is a migrant; Current annual growth rate of international migrants is about 2,9%;

4 Forecast Japan and all countries of Europe are expected to face declining population growth over the next 50 years. Population of Italy in 2050 will decline from 57 to 41 million of people Population of Japan in 2080 will decline from 127 to 105 million

5 Forms of migration Forced migration includes refugees, asylum seekers and people forced to move due to external factors Family members - people sharing family ties joining people who have already entered an immigration country Return migrants - people who return to their countries of origin after a period in another country

6 Types of migration Legal migrants Illegal migrants Irregular migrants
Refugees Labour migration

7 Migrants Legal Migrants - migrants that legally enter into the country, have a valid immigrant visa and proper documentation Illegal migrant – a person who, owing to illegal entry or the expiry of his or her visa, lacks legal status in a transit or host country. The term applies to migrants who infringe a country’s admission rules and any other person not authorized to remain in the host country

8 Irregular Migration The people who enter or remain in a country of which they are not a citizen in breach of national laws. The IMO estimates that irregular immigrants account for one-third to one-half of new entrants into developed countries, marking an increase of 20 per cent over the past ten years

9 Some Negative Consequences
-Irregular migration can undermine public confidence in the integrity and effectiveness of a state’s migration and asylum policies -Irregular migration can also endanger the lives of the migrants concerned. A large but unknown number of people die each year trying to cross land and sea borders without being detected by the authorities. Human traffickers ruthlessly exploit migrants. - More generally, people who enter or remain in a country without authorization can be at risk of exploitation by employers and landlords. -Migrants with irregular status are often unwilling to seek redress from authorities because they fear arrest and deportation. As a result, they do not always make use of public services to which they are entitled, for example emergency health care.

10 Refugees According to the 1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion, is outside the country of their nationality, and is unable to or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail him/herself of the protection of that country.

11 Facts The U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants gives the world total as 12,019,700 refugees. Moreover, there are over 34,000,000 displaced by war, including internally displaced persons. As of December 31, 2005, the largest source countries of refugees are Palestine, Afghanistan, Iraq, Myanmar, and Sudan.

12 Labour Migration An international migrant worker is defined by the 1990 United Nations (UN) International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families as “a person who is to be engaged, is engaged or has been engaged in remunerated activity in a State of which he or she is not a national.

13 Types of Labour Migration
Temporary labour migrants (also known as guest workers or overseas contract workers): People who migrate for a limited period of time in order to take up employment and send money home. Highly skilled and business migrants: People with qualifications as managers, executives, professionals, technicians or similar, who move within the internal labour markets of trans-national corporations and international organizations, or who seek employment through international labour markets for scarce skills. Many countries welcome such migrants and have special 'skilled and business migration' programs to encourage them to come.

14 Key Points International instruments such as the UN and International Labour Organization (ILO) Conventions use different definitions. The concept and definition of labour migration often reflects current national policy perspectives and varies between countries and over time The United Nations Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant Workers and Members of their Families simply refers to remunerated activity in a foreign country without specifying the source of remuneration

15 Labour Migration will continue;
Differences in employment opportunities and living standards between countries Increased education and broader access to information on living conditions and employment opportunities abroad Established inter-country networks based on family, culture, and history

16 Impacts of Labour Migration
The impact of labour migration varies from country to country. Economic migration can have different effects resulting from the volume, composition, and characteristics of the migratory flows as well as the context in which the flows take place. For countries of origin, in addition to the possibility of providing some relief from unemployment and absorbing an increase in the labour force, it can provide a form of developmental support, especially through remittances, transfer of know-how, and creation of business and trade networks For receiving countries facing labour shortages, immigration can alleviate labour scarcity, facilitate occupational mobility, and add to the human capital stock of the receiving countries

17 Net migration rate Net migration rate is the difference of immigrants and emigrants of an area in a period of time.

18 References International Organization for Migration: Matthew J. Gibney “Harmonization, Asylum, and Temporary Residence”, Refugee Studies Centre, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford International migration law: UNESCO “Social Transformations” United Nations High Commission for Refugees. Available at url: International Labour Organization:

19 Thank you for your attention

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